Jamaica Maitland Family
Sources as endnotes.
Private information as footnotes (removed before websave).
The information has been derived initially from an original handwritten Maitland family tree, starting with Francis Maitland (1), continuing in various hands to NG Maitland and others. This has been confirmed and expanded from Parish Records held by the LDS and from wills and other sources. This tree was probably compiled by the Maitlands in the Far East about 1900 and amended later.
A copy of what appears to be a Bible entry held be Peter Rushbrooke confirms the earlier details of the Maitland Tree: From the handwriting, this manuscript was probably written by Andrew Wright Maitland, snr. (1809-56). The last entry was 1853. A transcript was also made probably by his daughter.
1: JPR: Jamaica Parish Records
2: PR: English Parish records
3: Cxx: English Census, xx being the year.
4: PJR: Peter J. Rushbrooke papers.
JA: Jamaica Almanack.
DPNJ: Dictionary of Place-Names in Jamaica (extracts) Inez Knibb Sibley
(Institute of Jamaica 1978).
BM: Further information from Beth (Newbery) Maitland[i]
11/14/00, living near Towcester.
JFS: Jamaica Family Search site, a lot of valuable peripheral, background information.
Directory of Scottish Settlers in North America, 1625-1825 by David Dobson: Vol III: James Maitland, planter died Jamaica, Sept 1773.
Scots Magazine, Issue 35 p 559, Nov 1773, National Library of
Scotland checked June 1995: no further information. This
information however started me looking further for Francis (1)
Jamaica General has property and other miscellaneous information.
The Jamaica Maitlands are descendants of John Maitland, a mariner, planter and merchant of St Elizabeth. His origin is not certain other than his mother was called Sarah, and there is circumstantial evidence that he was the son of a mariner from London, Richard Maitland whose will was drafted in 1740, but proved in 1779. This Richard may have been connected with the family of Maitlands who were merchants in the City of London in the mid to late 18thC. His planter descendants are probably responsible for most of the Maitlands in Jamaica, either "directly" or by freed slaves taking the employer's surname. The Sherman family of St Elizabeth are also descendants of John Maitland's grand-daughter.
The Merchants of London were Richard, Robert snr, Robert Jnr and Alexander Maitland, merchants in the city of London trading in Jamaica in the latter half of the 18thC. They owned land on the island then. A section in the Jamaica General chapter gives brief details of their activities.
The Maitland family were twice connected with the long established and extensive Wright, Burton, Booth and Sinclair families, who are described in a separate chapter.
Much research (before we found he was not our ancestor!) has been done on Frederick Maitland and is on file. Details of the life of Capt Frederick Lewis Maitland, RN 1730-86 and of his Scottish descendants.
This branch of the family became "pen-keepers" in St Elizabeth Parish in the South West of Jamaica. "Pens" were livestock farms in Jamaica, although they often produced other crops such as pimento (allspice berries). They were not as wealthy as the sugar barons, and tended to be regarded as a lower social level than the barons. As the sugar industry declined after the emancipation of the slaves and the introduction of sugar beet in Europe, the pen keepers became the old "squirearchy" of the Island. A fuller description of the industry in contained in Jamaica General.
Many of the later generations worked in the Far East, mainly China.
A Robert Maitland, miller, died Golden Grove Estate, Trelawney, Nov 1797 (VLO V4 P271). No trace in the parish records.
The principal individuals are summarised below. Full details
follow together with all his offspring:
Francis Maitland (1) was born 25/2/1784 in St Elizabeth,
the son was the son of John Maitland, a mariner, merchant and planter who died a
few years after Francis' birth and a free Quadroon named Rebecca Wright (confirmed
by Rebecca's will). He died in London in 1824. He had a brother, Richard, who
must have died before 1804. He was described as a man of colour, but was
subject of a "Privilege Bill" in 1784 which gave his grand mother,
Patty Penford, his mother and aunt and himself the rights of a white.
Francis himself became a planter owning a pen (cattle farm) called Giddy Hall in St Elizabeth parish in the South-West of the island: he bought this property in 1809 for £5000 from the Delaroche family of Gloucestershire.
This and other properties owned by him show him to have been a man of some substance: he inherited property from his mother, Rebecca. His mother was the daughter of a Mulatto, Patty (later Penford), a freed slave "from the Estate of Roderick Rose". Her father was very likely to have been Dunston Wright, born 1713. A grave belonging to Rebecca Wright is still visible in Black River Churchyard: this grave is that of Francis' mother. She mentions Francis in her will.
Francis was in England by mid 1806 when he married Ann Wright in London in July 1806. Rebecca died in Bristol early in 1805, but was buried in Black River. It is likely that Francis was with her in England then, but he may have returned to Jamaica to bury her. His first child, Frances, was born in London in May 1807, and baptised in February 1808. It is unlikely to have returned to Jamaica between marriage and Frances's baptism. When he bought Giddy Hall, he was "of Westmoreland", probably at Rebecca's 214 acre property, The Cove.
At 5/2000, there is no information on his London life. The dates shown on the Maitland tree agree with the marriage and first child's birth in the parish records. He and Ann probably met in Jamaica, where her father, Andrew, was the owner of Mitcham & Silver Grove Pens in St Elizabeth; the Wrights moved to London at some time and a condition of Ann inheriting from her father was that she did not go to Jamaica unmarried: was this to prevent Francis marrying her, which he did soon after her father's death? This clause explains why they were married in London.
For Ann's family, see Wright Family.
His next entry is as an owner of slaves at Giddy Hall when his next 4 children were baptised in 1814. 12 slaves were baptised at the same time, as were 6 belonging to the estate of Andrew Wright.
His daughter, Frances, was buried in Bristol in 1818, and so one or both of Francis and Ann were probably in England then.
He returned to London at more than once, as his last son, Octavius was baptised at St Mark's Kennington, London, after Francis's death although the Maitland Tree shows him being born in Giddy Hall in March 1823.
At his death (7/8/1924, aged 40) in London, he was described as a gentleman. An entry in the Royal Gazette for Jamaica, 22/1/1825 (PRO: CO141 22): "In England, whither he had gone for the benefit of his health, in August last, Francis Maitland esq, proprietor of Giddy Hall, Mitcham and Silver Grove in the Parish of St Elizabeth."
In 1821, 3 more of his children and 48 slaves were baptised at Giddy Hall. This entry calls him a free person of colour, but names his wife as Ann, reputed white. Some of the slaves were from Mitcham and Sliver Grove: these pens had presumably come into the family by then from Ann's father Andrew.
The children's baptism and his slave registration after his death being held by his executor John Salmon acting as attorney to Ann Maitland and Giddy Hall Pen confirm that his plantation was Giddy Hall.
Note Francis(2) as joint attorney in 1832.
He appears in the Jamaica Almanacs as the proprietor of Giddy Hall, Mitcham and sometime co-owner of Silver Grove (with his brother-in-law, George Roberts, wife of Rebecca Wright).
Whilst he had 9 children, some of whom had offspring, it is not thought that any of the male line remained in Jamaica. His daughter, Emma, married Samuel Sherman; she was left Mitcham by her mother. Sherman's still live in the region around Mitcham, and "old Mr Sherman" of Mitcham greathouse was still remembered in 1998. The remaining known family come from 3 of his 7 sons, of whom Andrew Wright, John and Francis (2), George and Septimus survived to adulthood. Those who produced children (Andrew, Francis & Septimus) moved to England in the mid 19th Century except for Andrew although his children did move. The seventh son, Septimus, was a London tea merchant and probably encouraged his elder brother Francis 2nd's sons and grandsons to seek their fortunes in the Far East in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries as described below.
In 2007, descendants of Andrew, Francis 2, Septimus and Emma Rebecca are known.
Giddy Hall was a cattle pen of about 1165 acres (in 1840, the total holding was 2000 acres). Although primarily a cattle pen, Pimento was also grown, and appears in the accounts (see under Jamaica General for more details of the house and pens).
Giddy Hall became the family home until it passed via his wife, his son John, John's widow, and her second husband, John Myers Cooper. The Cooper family sold it after the 2nd World War, after which it was demolished. It can be seen to have been a substantial property, probably late 18thC, with stone lower level with a timber building on top, typical of a Jamaican Great House. Two photographs taken in 1899 exist. In addition to the 75-80 slaves he had in his own name to work the place, he had a further 40-50 which were jointly owned with his wife's brother-in-law, George Roberts. See later in this section for full details of slaves held. By 20 years after his death, the Maitland property was extensive, owning much land between Black River and Lacovia.
Mitcham pen came into his family via his wife; Silver Grove Pen adjoined Mitcham and was a shared property with George Roberts, who had married Francis' sister-in-law, Rebecca. Mitcham passed to the Sherman family, while Silver Grove passed into the Roberts family sometime after Francis' death. Silver Grove was owned by the Earl of Balcarres in 1763 (he was a sometime Governor of Jamaica).
The father of Francis Maitland 3rd.
Francis (2) was born at Giddy Hall 29/12/1811 of Francis (1) and Ann (Wright) Maitland, and died at sea in November 1842, probably in a fierce storm in the North Sea 22-23 November, when master of a bark sailing from Newcastle to Malta and Constantinople. Unfortunately, the PRO collection lacks the copies of the Kingston Morning Herald for the relevant period: papers of the time printed a lot of "shipping intelligence", which might reveal a suitable wreck. The papers also contained death notices of many local people.
Francis (2) spent his early life on the family pen, Giddy Hall, and was involved in the business, being referred to as joint attorney at Giddy Hall in the 1832 slave registration records (he also had problems with runaway slaves - see below!).
Francis (2) was, for at least some of his life, a seaman. His only recorded voyage was in a commercial vessel, the Westbroke, on which he was mate on a voyage between London, Jamaica (Port Royal) and return in 1836 between January and September. His son Francis, was christened (when Francis was a "master mariner") in London 12 days after his return. There are connections with Liverpool: his son Francis was shown as being born there in the 1851 census, although he later showed it as London (ie his christening place). The 1851 information is probably the most reliable, coming from his mother. Francis' will was also drawn up in Liverpool. His second son was born in Jamaica, and so the whole family must have spent at least some time there. Giddy Hall was occupied by one brother, John, and another, Andrew was next door at Mount Charles. The interests in the family property was left to all the children by their mother Ann.
Francis 2 left all in his will to his wife, including his interests in the Jamaica properties and other belongings, including his chronometer, an essential for a mariner.
There is a mysterious reference to a ...Maitland, lady and child arriving in November 1842. We do not know who this might have been.
He married Harriet Carpenter (22/2/1834 St Mary Stratford Bow): his proven children were Francis (3) and John Andrew (1839).
Harriet Carpenter was the daughter of John and Elizabeth Carpenter, a farmer near Exeter, Devon, England. The Carpenter family are not easy to follow back. Francis could have met her when sailing from Exeter.
She is the only suitable individual shown in the Exeter area, but there is an age discrepancy: was this the right one and was she understating her age later in life (she might have understated her age to her otherwise younger 2nd husband - a not unknown action)? If born 1818, as deduced from later census returns, she would only have been married at 16 and just 18 at the christening of son Francis Maitland. Harriet remarried Peter Augustus Halahan after Francis' death and produced 4 more children.
Note that husband Francis only returned from sea 6/9/36. Francis 3 also shown born Liverpool in Census 51, but when is not known, but probably between Spring 1836 (age at census) and September 1836. She was described as "of Exeter" in Francis's will.
After her husband died, Harriet married 17/7/1847, Peter Halahan, an Irishman in London and had further children by him. He was then a teacher, but later he was in property.
She died of hepatitis and typhus, 28/12/1867, 407 Fulham Rd, at a quoted age of 49.
The line continues in Francis (3).
BornMT:29/12/1811, ChJPR: Giddy Hall, 12 April 1814. (Copy Held)
BornMB at Giddy Hall 29th December 1811 at 1 o'clock at night.
Parents: Francis Maitland & Ann Wright.
Married Harriet Carpenter, 22/2/1834 St Mary Stratford Bow (PR)
Died: Nov 1842 Died at SeaMT
(Kingston Herald for these few months not in PRO).
MB: (written by Andrew Wright Maitland) Francis Maitland "sailed from Newcastle on the 19th of November 1842 in the Brig "Helen Maria" of which he was Master bound to Malta and Constantinople. In Febry ensuing a plank was found near Christiansand on the coast of Norway with the name "Helen Maria" on it. It is supposed this vessel foundered in a terrific gale that raged on the English coast on the 22nd and 23rd November and every soul on board perished. The above was written 14th of June 1843 up to which date nothing further had been found of this ill fated vessel".
(Now Kristiansand, on the southern coast of Norway. In 2002, the town is a small container & ferry port, with many old stone, brick and wood buildings, typical of many Norwegian towns).
Lloyds Register 1842:
Helen Maria, a Snow, Master: Maitland, 260 Tons, coppered with iron bolts, Built Sunderland 1839, Owner Carr & Co, London. Sailing Liverpool to Rio de Janeiro. A1 condition.
There was no mention of the Helen Maria in the wreck listing to mid 1843 in the "Report on the Committee on Shipwrecks, 1843", but 2 ships lost in the North Sea 19 November 1842. An interesting report.
Francis' wife was not on the Maitland Tree, but her identity has been established from son Francis's (3) birth PR/IGI & his will, and her 2nd marriage.
Newcastle Journal Tyne and Wear, 27 Jul 1839, MARINE INTELLIGENCE
The Helen Maria, of and from Sunderland, for Quebec, out 30
days, all well, m lat. 45.1 long. 57.
London Standard London, 10 Oct 1839, Ship News
Arrived, the Helen Maria, Cliburn, from Quebec
Morning Post London, 17 Aug 1840
UNITED STATES, CANADA, $c
the brig Helen Maria, Capt. Sweetzer, 22 days from Tobasco,
we have received intelligence that the Central General, Don Ygnacio, had taken
possession of the principal fort at Tobasco. The remainder of the city is in
possession of the Federal General, Dob
Newcastle Journal Tyne and Wear, 18 Jul 1840, MARINE INTELLIGENCE
Arrivals at Foreign Ports
Constantinople, June 11 – Helen Maria, Richards, Newcastle, and sailed on the 12th for Odessa.
Newcastle Journal Tyne and Wear, 2 May 1840,
Hamburgh Helen Maria, Richardson
Morning Post London, 23 Feb 1841, SHIP NEWS
Arrived the Helen Maria, from Taganrog
Newcastle Courant Tyne and Wear, 2 Apr 1841, MARINE INTELLIGENCE
Helen Maria, Richards, for Malta
Morning Post London, 6 Apr 1841, SHIP NEWS.
The Helen Maria, bound to Malta has been towed into these roads
with loss of mainmast and considerable damage, having been in contact with the
new Warp Light. St. Michael's.
Newcastle Journal Tyne and Wear, 10 Apr 1841, MARINE INTELLIGENCE
The Helen Maria, Richards, from Newcastle to Malta, has been
towed into our With loss of mainmast, and considerable damage to having been in
contact with the Newark Light.
Norfolk Chronicle Norfolk, 17 Jul 1841
The Admiralty Court, Monday July 5
The Helen Maria – Salvage – This was an appeal from the award of the magistrate of Yarmouth, who had allotted a reward of 80l. to a steam tug for towing the vessel (which had, through carelessness, run foul of the Newark light vessel, and thereby lost her mainmast) into Yarmouth harbour. The salvors contended that, considering the value of the property (3050l.), and that the magistrates had awarded the same sum to some boatmen from Winterton, who could render no effectual service, the sum of 80l. was inadequate.
Dr. Lushington was of opinion, that the magistrate had come to a just conclusion, and that there was no reason for the appeal. He affirmed the award, with costs.
Royal Cornwall Gazette Cornwall, 26 Nov 1841, SHIP NEWS
Helen Maria, Fish, from Alexandria;
Morning Post, London, 1 Feb 1842, Ship News:
Helen Maria, Fish, for Rio de Janeiro
Morning Post, London, 19 Feb 1842, Ship News:
Helen Maria, Maitland for Rio Janeiro
Liverpool Mercury Merseyside, England
15 Jul 1842
Helen Maria, and Ann Brideon, seen at Rio Janeiro
Newcastle Courant, 5 August 1842:
Helen Marie, Nairn for Malta. Probably not the same ship.
Morning Post, London, 19 Sep 1842, Ship News:
Arrived the Helen Maria, Maitland from Rio for Hamburgh
Royal Cornwall Gazette Cornwall, England
23 Sep 1842
Helen Maria, Maitland, from Rio Janeiro
Newcastle Journal Tyne and Wear, England
26 Nov 1842
Newcastle cleared foreign – Helen Maria, Maitland, Malta.
John O’Groats Journal Friday, November 3, 1843 – not ours.
The past week, like the great storm in January last will long be borne in melancholy recollection...At Berwick the Helen Maria, from Pappenberg, and the Anna Margaretta, from Dordt, both bound to Grangemouth, were wrecked to the westward of the harbour. The crew, fortunately, were saved.
PRO Kew 29/4/94: Register's of Seaman's Service:
BT119-12 gives FM ref no 1156
BT112-44 shows FM: (register 1836-1845)
Age 25, b at Jamaica, voyage: m 9/56 Westbroke
BT120-4 f558: (register 1835-36)
Maitland, Francis, age 25, born Jamaica, Mate, Westbroke of London 7/9/36.
This appeared to be his only voyage recorded by this system.
BT98-384: Crew Record for Westbrooke shows Francis M (age 25 born Jamaica) sailed to Jamaica and back, joining the ship 25/1/1836 and leaving 6/9/1836. The master was Joseph A Freeman aged 30.
Royal Gazette, Jamaica (PRO CO141 30), Shipping intelligence, 1832.
"Westbrooke, barque, Smith, (from) Downs, arr Port Royal, 27/11/1832."
4 Passengers, plus cargo.
Royal Gazette, Jamaica (PRO CO141 30), Shipping intelligence,
"Westbrooke, barque, Freeman, London, Last Downs 31 days, arr Port Royal, 8/3/36." Passengers: Messrs Hankin & Goatley.
Advertised as sailing for London, and shown loading for some weeks before sailing for London 21/7/36. Passengers: Rev A Campbell, lady 2 daughters and servant, Mrs Freeman (Captain's wife??), Mr Thomas Bilby, Masters Alexander, Samuel & Solomon Lazarus.
(Freeman noted as Captain of another ship sailing between London & Jamaica: probably a regular on the run).
BT107/33: The Westbrooke was built by Hillhouse and son of Bristol and completed 10/10/1820 for a syndicate of owners, including the 1st master, James Hall and several merchants. She was first registered 6/11/1820.
She had one deck, 3 masts, was 98'8" x 24'8", square sterned and 5'2" between decks. She was 265 Tons. Lloyds register of shipping show her still sailing the trade routes in 1846.
A Bark has 3, 4 or 5 masts, square rigged, with aft mast fore & aft rigged.
London Standard London, 9 May 1829, SHIP NEWS
Passed, the Westbrook, Smith, for Jamaica.
Morning Post London, 12 May 1829, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook, Smith, Jamaica
Morning Post London, 4 Nov 1829, SHIP NEWS
London, Westbrook, Smith; and Juno, Pritchard, Jamaica
Morning Post, London, 21 Sept 1830
Arrived the Westbrook, Smith, from Jamaica.
Morning Post London, 12 Jan 1831, SHIP NEWS
With — Westbrook, from London, 18th ult. lat. 23. 52. long. 29. 23
Morning Chronicle, London, 4 May 1831
.. the Westbrook, Smith, from Jamaica.
Morning Post, London, 28 Sept 1831
Arrived the Westbrook, Smith.
London Standard 13 April, 1833
Westbrooke from Jamaica
London Standard London, 27 Sep 1834, SHIP NEWS
sailed, the Westbrook, from Jamaica, the Black River Packet, from Jamaica
London Standard, 29 Nov 1834
remains the Westbrook, Freeman, for Jamaica.
Morning Post London, 8 Dec 1834, SHIP NEWS
Porcupine, Westbrook, from Llandovery
Morning Post London, 28 Jan 1836, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook, Freeman, for Jamaica
London Standard London, 6 Sep 1836, SHIP NEWS
the Westbrook. from (Jamaica)
Morning Post London, 7 Sep 1836, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook from Jamaica
Morning Post London, 8 Sep 1836, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook, Freeman, from Jamaica
Kentish Gazette Kent, 7 Mar 1837, DEAL, Feb. 27
Westbrook, Freeman, for Jamaica
London Standard 16 Sept 1837:
Express from Liverpool.
...to sail, the Westbrooke, from Old Harbour, the same day for London (1 Aug).
London Standard London, 19 Sep 1837 SHIP NEWS
the Westbrook, from Jamaica
Morning Post London, 7 Oct 1837, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook, Morgan, for Jamaica
London Standard London, 6 Nov 1837, ship news.
the Westbrook, for Jamaica
Morning Chronicle London, 8 Nov 1837, SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE
Westbrook, Morgan, for Jamaica;
Kentish Gazette Kent, England, 14 Nov 1837, DEAL, Nov. 6
Westbrook, Morgan, for Jamaica;
Royal Cornwall Gazette Cornwall, England 17 Nov 1837
Westbrook, Morgan, from London
London Standard London, 4 Jun 1838 SHIP NEWS
the Westbrook, Morgans, from Jamaica
Morning Post London, 7 Jun 1838
Westbrook Morgan, from Jamaica;
Kentish Gazette Kent, 12 Jun 1838, DEAL, May 28
Westbrook, Morgan, from Jamaica.
London Standard London, 19 Sep 1838, SHIP NEWS;
the Westbrook, for the Mauritius;
Morning Post London, 13 Oct 1838, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook. Lemmington, for the Mauritius
London Standard London, 22 Oct 1838, SHIP NEWS
the Westbrook, for the Mauritius
Morning Post London, 23 Oct 1838, SHIP NEWS,
Westbrook, Linnington, for the Mauritius Oct. 21
Morning Post London, 12 Jun 1839, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook. Leamington, March 1, from London and the Cape
London Standard London, 12 Jun 1839, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook. arrived at the Mauritius
Morning Chronicle London, 26 Mar 1839, SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE
by the Westbrook arrived at the Cape of Good The Hope
Morning Post London, 20 Jul 1839, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook, Lexington, New South Wales
Morning Post London, 4 Apr 1840, SHIP NEWS
the Westbrook cleared Dec. 24, for Sydney
Morning Post London, 23 Jun 1840, SHIP NEWS.
Westbrook, Lennington, from the Mauritius
Morning Post London, 12 Sep 1840, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook, from Sydney
Morning Post London, 13 Mar 1841, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook, Nov. 22, from Bombay
Cork Examiner Cork, Republic of Ireland, 27 Sep 1841
SHIP NEWS..COVE OF CORK
Arrived.. Westbrook, Linnington, Canton, teas
Liverpool Mercury Merseyside, 19 Nov 1841, Shipping Intelligence
Westbrook, Linnlngten, Sydney
Morning Post London, England, 12 Nov 1841, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook, Lemington, for Port Philip and Sydney
London Standard London, 6 Apr 1842 SHIP NEWS
the Westbrook, for Port Philip
Morning Post London, 28 Mar 1842, SHIP NEWS
Westbrook, for Port Philip and Sydney
Morning Post London, 19 Dec 1842, SHIP NEWS,
Westbrook, from Liverpool
St E PR shows: Francis M b. 3/6/1842, "this child had been privately baptised and was received into the church on the 28th March 1843."
This is an unusual entry, but the date of birth is far removed from our Francis (2) to be relevant.
29/2/2000: searched newspapers for death notice, assuming that he died about 11/1842. Kingston Morning Herald not held in PRO copy (CO142/6) between 16/11/42 & 17/2/1843; no mention of him in the issues either side. Liverpool papers of the time also checked, but no mention found of any relevant ship accident, or indeed sailing with his name mentioned.
But: 16/11/42, Passengers arrived at Port Royal:
Maitland, lady & child, in the "Conservative" 13/11/1842 from Portsmouth. Who was this????
A suggestion from Allan Flook, 11/2008: we know that Caroline Ann Maitland, daughter of Caroline (Burgess) and Patrick John Maitland, was born 30/8/1840 in Camberwell and her brother, Frederick William Maitland was born 3/4/1843 in Jamaica. So this could have been Caroline and her daughter Caroline Ann. However where was Patrick John? (Patrick John Maitland was the son of Patrick Maitland, younger brother of Frederick Colthurst Maitland from whom the present Earl descends)[ii]
All of the above except the last birth are also shown in an old Burgess family bible. His birth date of 1816 is confirmed on the 1841 census. I have found no formal evidence as to his date of death but as the date of 1886 closely follows the Succession case won by his nephew I suspect this date is correct.
Also, The Brig Maitland arrived Savannah la Mar, 9/11/42, Capt Whitton (Lloyd's shows built Malta 1820, Southward owner, reg Malta - probably named after General Tom). Not relevant to us.
Slave Registration records for 1832 show Francis Maitland & John Salmon as attorneys to Ann Maitland at Giddy Hall Plantation: he must have taken on some responsibility when approaching 21.
Royal Gazette: St Elizabeth quarter sessions, 30/10/1832:
Slave indictments: .... Crown v. Fidelia to Giddy Hall pen..... guilty of running away. Incorrigible runaway, to be transported off the island for life.
Will: made 13/2/1842, submitted for probate 5/6/1843
Left share in Giddy Hall and other estate Mitcham & Silver Grove to wife, Harriet Maitland of Exeter. Brother John & Harriet executors.
Death Duty Reg @ Taunton (IR26/1651f764):
Right, title, interest and ?? in the estate or pen called Giddy Hall in the Parish of St Elizabeth, Jamaica, and also in the estate or pen of Mitcham and Silver Grove in the Parish of ---, Jamaica. Also chronometer watch, Money, linen, clothes and all Jamaican property whatsoever. To the wife Harriett for life and after her death to ??.
No value or death date given.
One executor was "Thomas Cooke of 31 Saint Paul's Square Liverpool in the County of Lancaster shipping clerk ..."
Gore's directory of Liverpool, 1843, showed Thomas Cooke, Master Mariner, 31 St Paul's Sq (residence) and at seaman's shipping office, 4 Newton Lane, Bath St.
Who was George Augustus Moore of Exeter executor in this will??
Married: Harriet Carpenter (AM06/02)
Francis 2 probably met Harriet when in Exeter, or knew her father at sea. There was, however, a family called Davy from Topsham/Wear Devon, in Manchester, near Mile Gulley. The properties were called Heavytree and Topsham.
From Ancestry.com, married Harriet Carpenter, 22/2/1834 St Mary Stratford Bow (PR checked) witnesses James Harris and William Bland. Both "of this parish" and bachelor and spinster. Their signatures looked educated. St Mary Stratford Bow is in Tower Hamlets.
Issue of Francis & Harriet Maitland:
(MT - IGI has only Francis):
1/1. Francis Maitland (ch London, 18/9/1836) AM05/01
For his offspring see Francis3
1/2. John Andrew Maitland: born 1839, Jamaica, (census51)
Married: Margaret Nicol Crosbie,
born 30/7/1844, dau of James & Helen (Nicol) Crosbie.
M/C: 3/2/1866, St Matthew, Bayswater:
He: 27, Batch, merchant, of St Pancras, Francis Maitland, merchant.
She: 21, Spinster, 74, Princes Sq, James Crosbie, Banker.
A private publication in 1909 gives the history of the Nicols:
THE GENEALOGY Of THE NICOL FAMILY KINCARDINESHIRE BRANCH, WE Nicol.
Wife: Margaret Nicol Maitland, died after him, mentioned in will as "otherwise amply provided for", left £10000 and leasehold house at 22 York Terrace, plus furniture and fittings..
Died (DC): 22 York Terrace, London, 17/12/1914 aged 76, of Heart failure & Dropsy.
1851 Census: with mother and stepfather Halahan, aged 12. John Andrew shown as having son Francis and G/sons Pelham & Andrew in Maitland tree: DSM knows nothing of this Francis, but knew the names Pelham and Andrew, but never met them, we think Pelham was a friend of DSM's brother, Otis.
The following from Politzer[iii] Thu, 21 Dec 2006
The 1879 North-China Desk Hong List (the annual business directory) lists Maitland & Co., at 9a Yangtsze Road, with J. Andrew Maitland (absent) and five others, one of them F.J. Maitland (son of Septimus).
There is also a J. Maitland & Co. at 41 Rue Montauban, with only John Maitland listed.
1873 bth of son Frank probably in China
1891 Census: Cravenhurst, Eastbourne:
John A. (50 Merchant, Jamaica), Margaret (wf, 46, Scotland), +8 servants.
1871/81/1901 not found
John Andrew Maitland (Hd, 70, Mar 45 Yrs, 3 born, 2 alive, 1 dead, Director of A Bank & several companies, Jamaica), Margaret N (wf, 66, Banff), Ethel (dau, 33, Marylebone).
HAPoole in his Poole history under the entry for his sister, Eleanor has the following statement referring to her husband, Nathaniel Maitland's family: "...Neither of his parents ever left England, but all the sons did, going out to China mostly, where their Uncle J.A. Maitland had amassed a great fortune in the import trade of English piece goods, and whose name is held in great respect by all early China hands."
DSM: JAM was my father's uncle and was referred to by NGM as "Uncle Jam" who made a lot of money somewhere. He was executor of his uncle Septimus' will. Septimus was a teabroker: was this the Far Eastern connection leading JAM and JAM's nephews to that region.
Will: "John Andrew Maitland formerly Cravenhurst Eastbourne but now of Little Friston near Eastbourne, 22 York Terrace, Regents Park & 66, Old Bond St, London.
Died 17/12/1914 at 22 York Terrace.
Probate 6/2/1915 to Francis James Maitland & Charles
Ernest Johnston, Majors HM Army & Edgar Josiah Houle, merchant.
Effects £220135-1-5d, re-sworn Hong Kong £220821-14-10d.
Death: aged 76, Marylebone 1a704 Dec 1914.
(1) To niece Harriet Matilda Maitland £1000
(2) my cousin Annie Maitland the daughter of my late uncle Septimus Maitland £500.
(3) Mrs Harriet Kemp of 84 St Georges Road Pimlico S W £1000.
(4) To niece Helen Crosbie Anderson £500.
(5) To each .. servants .. in my service for .. three years .. fifty two weeks wages.
(6) to my daughter Ethel .. an annuity of seven hundred pounds ..
in the event of my daughter marrying to be for her separate use ..
trustees to set up fund for the annuity... And I direct that after the determination of the said annuity the fund and income ... held in trust for Francis Pelham Maitland and Andrew Maitland ... when twenty two years ...
(7) £50,000 in trust for the children of his son who are at least aged 22, 21 years after the death of JAM or his son, whichever the later. They receive the income at 21 in any case.
(8) The income from the remainder of the estate to be for son Francis James. The capital being in trust for the children specified in 7.
2/1. Francis James Maitland, born China, abt 1873.
DC: Possibly Francis J, 1940Q1,
Hove, aged 66 (2b1071).
1901 Census, 11-18 Grand Parade, Burlington Hotel, Eastbourne.
Francis J Maitland (Hd, 28, living on own means, China), Evelyn A.N.P.P. Papillon (visitor, 20, army officer, Lapland (Brit)).
1913, 13 Nov, Orissa, Pacific Steam Navigation, Liverpool for Callao (Lima, Peru):
Francis James Maitland (40, no profession, res England), Edith Dorothy Maitland (35, res England)
Married, 1902: Edith Dorothy Mayhew, b. 1876, dau of Arthur and Alexa Edith (Wright) Mayhew.
Stationed in Isle of White in WW1, a connection which continues through his grandson.
3/1. Andrew Fraser Maitland, b 1903.
3/2. Francis Pelham Maitland, b. 1906. (ref James M below)
Was a famous Solent yachtsman and
early Ocean racer.
Sold Friston house in 1981.
4/1. James Maitland, b. 1943. James works in the drinks
export trade, and spent some years
in Japan, where he married and has a daughter. He subsequently worked for
Dodwells in the middle east (coincidentally the same company as Donald
Maitland's uncle Chester Poole). By 2001, he was trading on his own behalf in London, but in the same field.
A keen sailor with yacht based in Isle of White.
See here for the Nicol Family
2/2. Ethel Maitland, unm in 1914.
(ref JAM will)
2/3. ANO, dead by 1911.
The China Traders' Insurance Company, Limited: Branch Office for New Zealand, Featherston Street, Wellington.....
.....The China Traders' Insurance Company is represented in the greater part of the civilized world. The Shanghai branch is managed by a committee composed of Messrs. P. Arnhold, of Messrs. Arnhold, Karberg and Co.; C. Schlee, of Messrs. Robert Anderson and Co.; James Jones, agent for the American Trading Company; the local agent being Mr. J. E. Reding. In Japan the Company has a branch office at Yokohama, which is entrusted to the care of Mr. A. S. Garfit. The London office, at number 10 Cornhill, E.C., was founded many years ago. The following gentlemen form a committee of management, viz., Messrs. J. A. Maitland (Messrs. Maitland and Co., Limited); David Reid (Director of the National Bank of India, Limited); T. Cuthbertson (Messrs. Edward Boustead and Co.); L. Poesnecker (Messrs. Arnhold, Karberg and Co.) Mr. Waldemar Schmidt is the manager of the Company's business in England.
The Maitland Tree as given to the author also had 2 further children, Ann Maria and Henry: they are unlikely to be correct: a note by Ann & Henry give born 1839 2nd Q and 1840 4th Q: St Catherines register for these entries yield birth certificates with the wrong parents, and these 2 do not appear in Census 1851.
HARRIET CARPENTER - 1812
BornPR: 8/9/1812, Lower Shillingford (PR)
ChPR: 27/9/1812, Shillingford St George (PR - twins)
Parents: John & Elizabeth Carpenter:
DiedDC: 28/12/1867, 407 Fulham Rd, age 49, (no will or admon).
Born: from Census 51: 5/1817 - 4/1818, C61: 5/1816 - 4/1817
Death Cert: 1/1818 - 12/1818
IGI & PR: Harriet Carpenter ch Shillingford St George (just outside Exeter)
27/9/1812, parents John & Elizabeth Carpenter:
PR shows: twins, James & Harriet, born 8th September @ Lower Shillingford.
This is the only suitable individual shown in the Exeter area, but there is an age discrepancy: was this the right one and was she understating her age later in life (she might have understated her age to her otherwise younger 2nd husband)? If born 1818, she would only have been just 18 at the christening of son Francis Maitland and 16 or 17 when married. Note that husband Francis only returned from sea 6/9/36.
Francis 3 also shown born Liverpool in Census 51, but when is not known, but probably between Spring 1836 (age at census) and September 1836. She was described as "of Exeter" in Francis's will.
Shillingford in 1840 was a small parish consisting of a large house owned by Sir Laurence Vaughan Palk. There were few other buildings. The 1840 tithe apportionment shows no Carpenters, nor indeed any working people.
After Francis' death, she married a 2nd time (cert held):
Harriet Maitland to Peter Augustus Halahan, 17/7/1847 at St John's Parish Church, Waterloo, Surrey, both full age, he bachelor & teacher, she widow, residence Waterloo Rd, witnessed James Green & Robert Brown.
His father: James Halahan, farmer, Her father: John Carpenter, farmer.
Peter Halahan died 1st Q 1895 (? web site).
Issue: by 2nd husband (C51, C61):
1/1. James Halahan, born abt 1848, London.
Does not appear after 1861 census – either died or in Ireland.
1/2. Harriet Halahan, born abt 1850 (Lambeth, IV 353 Sept 1849)
Marriage Index: Q2 1881, Westminster, 1s 849.
1/3. Emma Maria Halahan, born abt 1851
(Lambeth, IV 340, Dec 1850)
B/C: born 25/10/1850 @ 72, Upper Stamford St, Lambeth: father Peter Augustus Halahan (School Master), mother Harriet Halahan, late Maitland, formerly Carpenter.
Nil M to end 1883.
1/4. Patrick Augustin? Halahan,
(death cert: died 2/9/1857, 22, College St, aged 2yrs, 5mths, son of a gentleman, of exhaustion from natural diseases.)
1851 Census 72, Upper Stamford St, Lambeth.
Peter Halahan (Hd 35 House Agent Kilkenny), Harriet (33, Exeter), Frank (named Halahan, but actually Maitland, 14, Scholar at home, Lancs, Liverpool), John (also Maitland, 12, scholar at home, Jamaica), James (4), Harriet (2) Emma (5 mths) last 3 Lambeth, Ellen O'Brian (servant, Limerick).
1845 Post Office Directory:
Peter Augustus Halahan House Agent, 72 Upper Stamford St.
1861 Census 21, College St, Chelsea (became Fulham Rd)
Peter A Halahan (42, Landholder, Kilkenny, Ireland), Harriet (44, Devonshire [difficult to read - best guess]), James (son? 13, London), Harriett (11, London) Emma (10, London).
1871 Census (RG10-79,f64-74) 407 Fulham Rd, Chelsea:
Peter Halahan (wid, 50, Estate Agent, Ireland), Harriet (22, London), Emma (20, London), Jane Williams (servant, Caernavon), Teresa Ambrose (visitor, Governess, Surrey).
1881 Census: 407 Fulham Rd, London. (0080 f13 p19).
Peter A Halahan (wid, 57, Gent, Ireland), Emma (25, London), Harriet (27, London).
BornMT: 25/2/1784, married: 29/7/1806, died: 7/8/1824
BornJPR: 25/2/1784, St Elizabeth, Jamaica. (copy held).
Parents: John Maitland & Rebecca Wright. (StE PR)
MarriedPR: 29/7/1806 (bachelor) Ann Wright (spinster) @ St Clement
Danes witness Sarah Mynor(?). (PR Page 167, 1806 no 508).
Died: 7/8/1824 @ 8, Arundle St, (Haymarket & Strand area) London. (PR & MT)
Buried: St Clement Danes, 21/8/1824 age 41.
Vol 1, folio 49 (1720-1800):
1784 May 23: Francis Maitland baptised, reputed son of Mr
John Maitland by Rebecca Wright. Born 25 Feb 1784. (Listed under Non White).
Described in Jamaica PR as "Free Person of Colour" on George, Alexander & Septimus' birth and under non white at birth. Ann "reputed white". (Vol 2, folio 57: 3 baptism entries on 23/3/1821).
He was a subject of a Privilege Bill in 1784 giving him, Rebecca and he sister Margaret and his grandmother Patty Penford the rights of whites.
There was no mention of him on the rate rolls for 1822-1824 for Arundle Street. At son Octavius baptism in 1825, parish records describe him as "Gentleman" with an abode in Lambeth in the record.
He bought Giddy Hall in 1809 from the Delaroche family for £5000, and was a free person of colour of Westmoreland Parish at that time (probably Scott’s Cove Pen). The deed for this is complicated due to the ownership state of Giddy Hall and the Delaroche family and their creditors.
For deed ref 561/161, Ent 25 April 1809, summary see Maitland Wills.
Slaves Manumitted (freed):
25/7/1823, Frederick Cowan, £140, Frank Maitland & ux.
31/5/1824, Louisa Wright, £220, Frank Maitland.
Public Record Office On 8/12/93, found his will which had been proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury in the Public Record Office on microfilm PROB11 1694. It was dated 23/11/1823 and left all his property to his wife, Ann and her heirs for ever. It was witnessed by Thomas W. Taylor, Mo B. Webb and William Powell. The executors were: his wife, John Salmon Jnr of St Elizabeth and James Swaby of Manchester. It was proved on 4/1/1825.
Also found were the death duty record (IR26 ref 1094):
"Francis Maitland of Jamaica, but at Arundle St, Strand - Planter will dated 29/11/1823.
Executor Ann M. of 5, Commercial Place, Lambeth (also shown in the index). Value £600, no liability.
St Elizabeth is a parish on the SW part of Jamaica, Manchester is another parish.
Supreme Court Wills 104/215, Francis Maitland entered 13/11/1824.
"All and whatever I may die possessed I leave to my wife Ann Maitland and her heirs forever."
Mentions Swaby & Salmon as attorneys.
The Swaby's were landowners in St Elizabeth in the 1840's and the Salmon family owned Fullerswood Plantation in St Elizabeth.
James was probably the grand son of Hon Joseph James Swaby by Ruth Burton (see Wrights, under the section on Benjamin Burton (1674))
No Jamaica inventory has been found (2008).
From Donna Kenny[iv], 2/2012, Island Record Office:
Agreement, Francis Maitland and Ann nee Wright and George Roberts and Rebecca nee Wright. 14 Feb 1821
... are entitled to a certain plantation called Mitcham and Silver Grove plus land, slaves, stock, premises etc on payment of a certain annuity or yearly sum of £300 sterling to Elizabeth Mary Wright of Great Briton widow of Andrew Wright... ...leave the entire management and conduct, slaves, premises to Mr Thomas Wheatle the present overseer... ...at least 10 tierces of coffee to be shipped to London...
A tierce was a British measure of coffee equivalent to between 5 and 7 hundred weight, in use during the 19th century. A tierce is a cask containing 42 gallons.
Almanac Entries St Elizabeth:
1811: Maitland, Francis - Giddy Hall, 74/140
1812: Maitland, Francis, Giddy Hall 74/142
1815: Maitland, Francis - Giddy Hall & Mitcham, 197/456
1816: Maitland, Francis - Giddy Hall & Mitcham, 197/450
1818: Maitland, Francis - Mitcham, 114/185
Maitland, Francis - Giddy Hall, 75/224
1820: Maitland & Roberts - 80 (prob Silver Grove) - Manchester
Maitland & Roberts - 42/179 (prob Mitcham)
Maitland, Frances - Giddy Hall, 71/240
1821: Maitland & Roberts - Mitcham?,38/194
Maitland, Francis - Giddy Hall, 70/217
1822: Maitland & Roberts - Silver Grove, 80 - Manchester
Maitland & Roberts - Mitcham, 41/219
Maitland, Frances - Giddy Hall, 66/220
1824: Maitland & Roberts: Mitcham 43/224
Maitland Frances Giddy Hall 68/320
Maitland & Roberts: Silver Grove 81/0 - Manchester
1825: Maitland & Roberts - Mitcham, 42/274
Maitland, Francis - Giddy Hall, 76/300
1826: Maitland & Roberts: Mitcham 42/245
Maitland Frances Giddy Hall 72/231
Maitland & Roberts: Silver Grove 85/0 - Manchester
1828: Maitland, Ann, 72/226
Maitland and Roberts, Mitcham, 40/241
Roberts, George, Silver Grove, 86 - Manchester
1830: Maitland & Roberts - Mitcham, 39/247
Maitland, Ann - Giddy Hall 77/145
1831: Maitland and Roberts, Mitcham, 39/247
Maitland, Ann, Giddy Hall, 77/145
1833: Maitland & Robert - Mitcham, 60/350
Maitland, Ann - Giddy Hall 100/300
1838: Maitland, Ann decd - Giddy Hall, (76 apprentices)
Civil BMD Jamaica:
1888-9: St Elizabeth – Edward Maitland M. Frances Elizabeth Smith (#831)
Manchester – William Griffiths Maitland M. Catherine Thompson (#817)
1891: St Elizabeth – Nathan Maitland M. Catherine Griffiths (#348)
1892: Kingston – Ernest M Facey M. Cordelia Farmer (#210)
("G.M.," FOR 1831, PT. 11, 16).
A neat mural marble slab has recently been erected, upon which is inscribed: "Sacred to the memory of Joseph James Swaby, esquire, son of Honourable Joseph James Swaby, late of the parish of St. Elizabeth in the island of Jamaica. . . He died Oct. 3d, 1821, in the 32d year of his age."
1821, Oct. 3. At Knottingley, aged 33, Joseph James Swabey, esq. of Montpellier, Jamaica, son of the late Hon. Joseph James Swabey. ("G.M.," 381).
1842, March 5. At Jamaica, Frederick Peat, to Ann Margaret Eleanor Swaby, of Eaton square., elder daughter of Joseph James Swaby late of Kilnsey, Yorkshire, and granddaughter and coheiress of the Hon. Joseph James Swaby late of Jamaica. (Ibid., 661.)
Cummings of Hopetown near Newmarket may have some Giddy Hall contents.
The wife of Francis (1)
BornMT: 8/2/1788 m.29/7/1806 d.23/10/1833 (ref will: in London).
ChJPR: St Elizabeth PR: Born Feb 1788, ch 18/12/1789, St Elizabeth
Parents: reputed dau of Mr. Andrew Wright by Ruth Sinclair, a free Mestize, child reputed white.
Her (and her sister’s) legacy from her father’s estate was conditional upon their not returning from England unmarried without the permission of his executors. It is quite probable that this restriction was to prevent Francis & Rebecca marrying, Francis being Ann’s half first cousin, and a man of colour. Ann & Francis circumvented this by Francis going to England and marrying there.
Ann Wright’s grandfather, Francis, was very likely also Francis Maitland and George Roberts grandfather. Ann and Francis would thus have been half first cousins, with Francis being born coloured. This may explain the curious restriction in Andrew’s will on his daughters’ marriages in England.
DiedMT: departed this life October 23rd 1833 aged 45 years at Giddy Hall. (not correct; from her will, died Chester Place, St Mary Lambeth, London, although "of St Elizabeth").
Epitaph at Giddy Hall:
Sacred to the memory of Mrs Ann Maitland who departed this life 23rd October 1833, aged 42 years.
No record of her burial in St Mary at Lambeth PR.
Chester Place not found in "Sewer Rates" Records for Lambeth 1834.
For details see Wright Family
Issue of Francis & Ann Maitland:
MT b. 21/5/1807, ch 19/2/1808. d.
MB: Born 21 May 1807 a quarter before 3 in the morning, christened 19th Feby 1808. Interred at the Baptist Burying Ground, Bristol.
PR (@ LRO) & IGI: Born 21/5/1807
Christened St Giles Camberwell (R2(a)) 19/2/1808 (entry checked).
The Roberts family are reputed to have come from Keynsham, Bristol: was this the reason for being in Bristol, or was it merely for transport?
Much of the information on this
branch of the family was provided by Peter Rushbrooke in 2002, from his own
research and papers and photographs from his second cousin, Edith (Von Estorff)
Braess. These originated with Andrew Wright Maitland's wife (Ann Katherine) via
her only daughter (Ann Katherine Helena), to her only daughter Edith Braess
surviving in Germany through both World Wars until given to him by Edith in the
late 1980's. These include Dr. Maitland's Certificates and medical Notebook
which were passed over to Guys Hospital in 1989 for "safe keeping."
MT: born at Giddy Hall, 12/4/1809 died: 20/4/1856 M.R.C.S.
Married Ann Katherine (d. 22/2/1886)
MB: born at Giddy Hall Jamaica on the 12th April 1809 at 12 o'clock at noon.
(AM: they must have only just moved into Giddy Hall by then!)
Christened at Giddy Hall, 12 April 1814.
BurJPR: Andrew Wright Maitland, M.D., 47 yrs, of Mount Charles, bur 21/4/1856, @ Clifton, by C Plummer.
"Andrew Wright Maitland., surgeon, and Ann Katherine Earle, widow, both of this parish were married by licence on the 16th December 1847." (PR film 1223998).
She was the widow of John Earle, and was born Ann Katherine Tomlinson.
From Peter Rushbrook:
Entered Guy's Hospital on 5/3/1824, articled to Mr Stocker. Held a certificate of Theory & Practice at Guy's dated Oct 1827 & appears in the 1830 Register of Medical Pupils as no 515, subsequently a "dresser" to Bransby Cooper, nephew of Sir Astley Cooper (knighted 1820 after removing a wart from KG V's Nose). Bransby served in the Army in Canada and the Peninsular, was appointed Ass. Surgeon & then Surgeon in 1825. He died in 1853. Maitland left Gravesend Oct 17 1830 in the SS "Hector" as ship's Surgeon on a voyage to Isle of France (Mauritius) & Ceylon returning to Gravesend on Nov 2, 1831. This voyage is described in an extract from his diary In the Appendix to this paper He then took passage for Jamaica on board the brig "Volusia" on Nov 29, 1831 (arr 4/1/1832). He was appointed Ass. Surgeon to the St Elizabeth Regiment of Foot in Jamaica in 1834 & as a justice in Elizabeth County in 1838. Commissioned as Health Officer for the port of Black River (Cornwall County) in 1841 & elected to the Fellows of the College of Physicians & Surgeons in Jamaica in 1842.
Andrew Maitland died suddenly after his morning ride around Mount Charles Estate in 1856.
A medical notebook and diary and certificates were given to the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's & St Thomas's Hospitals by the Family in 1989. Now held by the King's College, London, Archives and seen by A Maitland 2/2003.
He lived as a married man at Mount Charles estate which adjoins Giddy Hall. This property probably came to him with his wife, from the Burltons, Ann Tomlinson's mother's first husband's family.
See Jamaica General for more property information.
Ref 1846 Almanack: Lic. Ap. London.
Arr Black River, 4/1/1832, aged 17 on board SS Volusia, with sister EmmaPJR.
1838: Assistant Surgeon St Elizabeth.
1840/45/46: Militia Assistant Surgeon (St Elizabeth)
1845: District Prison Surgeon (Black River).
1851: Prison Surgeon paid £60 p.a. (JFS)
physician to the poor
1851: Maitland, A., Lic. Apoth. Co. London, St. Elizabeth
Also Health Officer, Black River.
Reference in "Monumental Inscriptions of Jamaica" to his gravestone at Mount Charles. Mount Charles was visited by Antony Maitland, April 1998.
Andrew's stone existed April 1998: brass plaque.
Anne Maitland's gravestone also still there, beside Andrew's: she did not remarry, and died 22/4/1886.
Also present, grave of Charles James Earle, died 29/6/1858, with brass plaque. Several other gravestones also there, but the plaques had been removed (later found to have been lead inserts, stolen for bullet making!).
Also bapt @ Mount Charles: James Maitland, age 1, 16/12/1838. (PR) (When MC owned by Burlton).
His will has not been located (2008), but his inventory makes and interesting list of his belongings:
Andrew Wright Maitland, Late of St Elizabeth, Practitioner in Physic and Surgery.
Inv by James Robert Usher and Thomas Jones
Administratrix Ann Katherine Maitland
Inv Date 11 April 1857, Ent 3 June 1857
The Inventory total was £899, full text is in Maitland Wills.
LDS website: Bridget Maitland of Aw Maitland & Rebecca Malone 30/6/1848
2/1. Ann Katherine Maitland
St E: Bapt (PR): V5/233, Ann
Katherine Maitland born 4/1/1850, ch 23/6/1850, dau to Andrew W, physician,
& Ann K of Mount Charles.
1861 Census @ res of Septimus age 11, 1881 also aged 32..
1871/81 not found.
DiedPJR: 1926, Germany.
From Peter J Rushbrooke:
Married, Deal 19/2/1888, Arthur Niel Dalepeck Haastroup (1848-1927)
3/1. Ann Katherine Helena Haastroup
(1889-15/1/1974, died Koblenz, Germany).
Married: 6/8/1914, Flensburgh, Paul Frederick Von Estorff, Flensburgh (1881-1958).
4/1. Edith Ann Katherine Von Estorff, Dr. (16/10/1919-)
Married, 20/11/1945: Dr. Martin
Braess, (1913-late 1990’s) in Germany through both World Wars. Martin served
with the German army in Russia, Greece and Italy, where he was badly wounded.
Later served in the German Military Medical Administration. Edith qualified in
medicine during WW2 and later joined Martin's practice. After he retired, she
worked with a child welfare clinic.
5/1. Peter Paul Von Estorff, b. 23/10/1946.
5/2. Christopher Michael Von Estorff, b. 29/9/1948,
5/3. Dorothy Ann Katherine Von Estorff, b. 15/8/1955
2/2. Andrew Wright Maitland (MT b.1850)
JPR B. 5/10 ch
4/11/1853, Andrew Wright, s of Andrew Wright & Ann K Maitland, of Mount Charles, Surgeon.
Died PJR: 2/7/1906, Shanghai.
Married, Shanghai, 11/2/1899: Emma Teresa Goodfellow (20/7/1878- 27/7/1978, died 2 weeks before her centenary), who M. 2nd (1909) Harold Edblad (died 1916), who was Swedish consul Shanghai (NG Maitland rented a house from him). Emma gained a Swedish passport (which kept her free during the Japanese occupation). She returned to England in the 1940's very short of money and was looked after by Peter & Ailsa Rushbrooke. More Goodfellow Information at End.
1861 Census @ residence of Septimus aged 8, with mother.
1871 Census, 90, Charlotte St, St Pancras (boarding house):
Andrew Maitland, (19, Clerk, Jamaica).
1881/91 not found.
1901 Directory: AW Maitland acting chief manager, Imperial Bank of China, Shanghai.
After 20 years with HSBC, he moved to the Imperial Bank of China where he became acting Chief Manager.
"number 6 on the bund":-
From Bruce W. Smith (editor
Journal of East Asian Numismatics) (email 11/08)
His signature appears on all the paper money issued by the bank (Imperial Bank of China.)in its early years. These notes are expensive, but they do turn up regularly. They sell in the range of U.S. $200 to $500, I think. There are issues from the Peking, Shanghai, and Canton branches in the 1898 series (all with his signature). His signature also appears on all the notes of the 1904 series, indicating that he was still working for the bank at that time.
The following from Thu, 21 Dec 2006.
Andrew Wright Maitland was hired by the Hongkong & Shanghai Bank in Shanghai (most of their staff was hired in England), and was an employee of the Bank for some 20 years, c.1875-1895. He rose to be chief accountant, and then the Bank's agent in Tientsin. There are several references to him in Vol. 1 of Frank H.H. King's History of the Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corporation. He retired in 1895.
The Imperial Bank of China was the creation primarily of Sheng Xuanhuai (Sheng Hsuan-huai, 1844-1916), a powerful Chinese official interested in modernizing China, who was involved in railroads, telegraphs, steel mills, etc. The bank was China's first modern financial institution. It issued coins and currency. One of its purposes was to accumulate Chinese capital for modernization projects, such as railroad construction.
It was modelled on the Hongkong & Shanghai Bank, and its bylaws apparently were closely modelled on the former's. It had a combined (or perhaps parallel) Chinese and foreign staff. Andrew Maitland was hired to head the foreign staff, and, probably, to train the Chinese managers in Western banking practices.
Maitland is briefly mentioned in Albert Feuerwerker's China's Early Industrialization, a study of Sheng's career, with part of a chapter devoted to the bank.
In 2000, a collection of documents was published by the Shanghai People's Press, Chen Xulu et al., Zhongguo tong shang yinhang (the Chinese name of the Imperial Bank of China). It contains a photo of the first page of Maitland's contract with the bank, legible with a magnifying glass. Among the 600+ documents are over 50 of which Maitland was either the author or (less often) the recipient. They are all in Chinese, of course. Probably Maitland had a Chinese secretary to compose, draft or translate them. I've only glanced over them. They appear to be all of a business character. The last of them was dated August 12, 1905.
At this point, I have no idea whether the bank's archives contain a collection of documents in English, but they should.
5) I found a very brief obituary notice for Maitland in the North-China Herald (the Shanghai English-language weekly) of July 6, 1906. It had no information of value. I didn't find an account of his funeral, or any summary of his career. (referring to AW Maitland).
Emma Goodfellow's sister was G-Aunt to Hew Stephenson[vi] of London (2002)
3/1 BM. Hugh Maitland: born Shanghai, 1903 died Hong Kong
1961, known as "Buffy".
1925: H Maitland, assist. Jardine Matheson, Shanghai - possible entry in directory.
An exchange broker in 1933 in Shanghai.
Buffy was a very good jockey and is well known in the racing circles in Hong Kong.
Married PJR: Cecile McBain (1902-8/1/1989, London);
separated about 1950.
4/1.BM. Andrew George Maitland (born 1933, Shanghai,
Was civil and RAF aircrew. Interned during WW2.
Married, 31/10/1959: Elizabeth (Beth) Ann Newbery (born 1936)
Beth Newbery's grandfather was headmaster of Presteigne Grammar 1883-1904 and later incumbent of Byton until 1925.
He was buried at Byton on the English/Welsh border.
5/1. Heather Maitland, born 12/8/1961.
5/2. Timothy Hugh Maitland, born 1964, England.
Married: Elizabeth Ann McNeilly
5/3. Edward Maitland, 1967 -1985
4/2.BM Marion Vera Maitland (born Shanghai, 1928,
Married, 1949: Warrington, Kenneth Corneck 1920-1993.
5/1. Patricia Cecile Corneck, born 1952, HK.
5/2. Peter Kenneth Corneck, born 1954, HK, married with issue.
5/3. Susan Catherine Corneck, born 1960, HK.
More details later in this section.
3/2. Catherine MaitlandPJR. Born Shanghai 1901,
born 23/5/1925, Valetta, Malta
Died: 1/4/2003, Colchester Hospital, Essex of pneumonia.
Married 17/5/1946, Ailsa Maxwell Craig (b. 21/1/1925).
5/1. Rose Catherine Rushbrooke, b 1954,
m. 9/6/1979, Paul Victor
Sinclare (div 1985)
m. 30/9/1995, David Thomas Mullins
5/2. Rupert Archibald Jermyn Rushbrooke, b. 1957
John Wedderburn Magistrate for Westmoreland
Also Thomas Thistlewood
James Robert Tomlinson
Major, St Elizabeth Militia, William B. Wright.
Ensign, Westmoreland, John Tomlinson
Magistrate Westmoreland: James Robert Tomlinson
St Elizabeth Coroner, R.B. Wright
Almanack 1840, John Earl, vestreyman of St E.
Almanack 1845, Earl, J. heirs of, Mount Olivet, 497 acres & Wiltshire, 600 acres.
1861 Census: An Ann R Maitland was staying with Septimus on the census in 1861: she was his sister-in-law, a widow and a landed proprietor, born in Jamaica, age 50 in 1861, with Ann K, 11, scholar & Andrew W, 8, both born in Jamaica.
1878 Directory of Jamaica, St E, Black River:
Maitland A.K., propr Mt Charles Pen.
Tomlinson George J., overseer Cornwall Pen
Tomlinson W. J, storekeeper, propr. Cornwall Pen
Tomlinson W. J. Jr., storekeeper
Mount Charles adjoins Giddy Hall: AWM's grave is there dated 1856. He was the owner of Giddy Hall in the 19th C, Mount Charles was at one stage owned by the Earl family (ref Dictionary of Place Names).
National Library, Kingston, ref St Elizabeth 689,
Mount Charles Pen map based on Morris Petgrave's plan of August 1822 and Mr Cunnungham's plan of May 1846. Shows Mount Charles Pen with its boundaries being Giddy Hall Pen, Whitehall Pen, Luana Pen, part of Providence, sold to Wm Spence.
Note that John Maitland married Augusta Spence (re her gravestone) in 1848.
National Library, Kingston, ref St Elizabeth 643.
diagram represents 171 acres of land - part of Luana Pen - and is intended to be purchased by Dr A.W. Maitland and belongs to Mount Charles Pen.
MT: b. 7/8/1810, d. 21/2/1853
Ch: Giddy Hall, 12 April 1814. (Jam PR)
MB: born at Giddy Hall 7th August
1810 at 12 at night.
Departed this life on the 21st February 1853 aged 43 years.
Interred at Norwood Cemetary, England.
DC: died 21/2/1853 3, Hamilton Place, Brixton, 42 yrs, Jamaica Planter, Congestion of the Brain, Informant George Roberts of 12, York Place, Camberwell New Rd.
1838/39/40: Vestreyman St Elizabeth
1845: Maitland J Kensington 300 acres
Giddy Hall 1150 acres
Rosehill 130 acres
1845/51: Magistrate: St Elizabeth John Maitland
1851 Census: not at Hamilton Place. George Roberts 30 yr old son of Edward Roberts (63 yr old widower). No apparent connection with John's uncle George in Jamaica.
Married: (MT) Augusta "Spenet" 25/8/1848 who married 2nd Mr Cooper & d. 1858 (on her grave, called Spence, born abt 1825) Executor of Francis (2) will 1843. Then of Giddy Hall.
Although the 2nd son, he seems to
have inherited/taken over Giddy Hall after his father's death, at which time
Andrew was starting his medical training. He was a cornet in the St E Militia
in 1839. He was a vestreyman in 1840 and a JP in 1845 for St Elizabeth.
Maitland, J. Kensington, 300
Maitland, J. Giddy Hall, 1150
Maitland, J. Rosehill, 130
He also owned Woodstock Pen, Westmoreland at death, on road from Black River to Mo Bay, south of Montpelier. Said to be bought by Tony Hart but sold on by 2008. Woodstock was a Spence property and must have come to John via his wife, Augusta Spence. It probably reverted back to them after his death, although her sisters renounced any claim they might have had from his will (which assumed that both he and Augusta might die at sea!).
He owned a majority of Giddy Hall at his death, but appeared to have been buying his brothers out: by this time, Andrew was settled at Mount Charles, Francis was dead and Septimus was probably in England.
Woodstock June 4 1852
This is the last will and testament of John Maitland. I leave devise and bequeath to my wife Augusta Maitland all my property real and personal for her own use. Being about to cross the Atlantic with her for the benefit of my health and as in the possibility of events we may both be lost at sea, in this case I desire that the sum of £210 due to my brother Andrew Wright Maitland be paid when my bond becomes due after which the further sum of £700 be paid my Brother Septimus in three sums of £200 each and one of £100 in four yearly instalments after which I direct that the yearly proceeds of my three fourths share of giddy Hall be used for the payment of the Loan due by Woodstock pen in the parish of Westmoreland to the British Government. This done I leave the 3/4th share of Giddy Hall to Ann Spence Caroline Spence and Elizabeth Spence sisters of my wife.
Sisters executors and Wm Spence when of age.
4 Aug 1853
5 Nov 1853: Renunciation of Ann Spence and others any claim.
John Maitland - Inventory
John Maitland, Planter of St Elizabeth
Inv by James Robert Usher & Henry Lawrence
Administratrix Augusta Maitland
Date 26 Oct 1854, Ent 6 March
Lists stock at Woodstock and his share of stock and household goods & chattels at Giddy Hall - in interesting list, The Inventory total was £911, full text is in Maitland Wills.
St E. PR:
Augusta Maitland, widow married John Myers Cooper, Gent. 17/10/1855.
Augusta Cooper wife of J.M. Cooper esq, of Giddy Hall, bur GH 13/1/1858.
Giddy Hall, April 1998:
Graves of Augusta & John Myers Cooper found under a bush, but in good condition:
Augusta Spence, wife of John Myers Cooper, who died at Bloomsbury, 13 Jan 1858, aged 33.
(Bloomsbury was a Spence property in St Elizabeth in 1845, of 226 acres, about 2 miles North of Giddy Hall.)
John Myers Cooper, died 8 December 1875 in his 61st year, his tombstone reads:
"For 30 years and upward he took a prominent part in the public affairs of the Parish of St Elizabeth. He was a man of large sympathy of great generosity and liberality and his charities though unostentatious were extensive and widely distributed. His departure is mourned by many. He contemplated the creation of a church and schoolroom on the farm pen but dying soon after work was commenced it was left to his successors to carry out."
A magistrate for Black River 1861.
Friday, August 4, 1820
University of Edinburgh
On Tuesday the Senatus Academicus of the University of Edinburgh conferred the degree of Doctor in Medicine on the following Gentlemen, after having gone through the appointed examinations, and publicly defended their Inaugural dissertations:
From Jamaica . . . . . . Dissertations, Inaugurales
Edward John Spence. . . . De Hepetis Functionibus
Jamaica Handbook, 1891-2:
The Church of Giddy Hall is about 7 miles north of the town of Black River. The ground and the materials and a certain amount of endowment were granted by the late J. S. Cooper; while the work that was necessary for the erection of the building was very cheerfully given by the large congregation that now assembles in the Church.
The Cooper family lived at Giddy Hall until the mid 1920's, but by then had exhausted the estate and it left this branch of their family.
1910: Giddy Hall: W.S. Cooper
Cooper, William Steven, Farm Giddy Hall, St. Elizabeth, #8 Item 9, 1921
Cooper, John, JP 1919 St E.
Giddy Hall, J. M. Cooper proprietor, Middle Quarters 1878
1/4. Francis Maitland Born
1/5. Richard Maitland - 1813
MT: b. 24/8/1813, d. 7/8/1814
MB: born at Giddy Hall on 24th August 1813. Died of croup 7th
August 1814 StE PR: Christened at Giddy Hall, 12 April 1814.
Born: 14/3/1815 (MT)
MB: born at Giddy Hall on the 14th March 1815 at 4 o'clock in the morning.
Married. 8/11/1832, Samuel Sherman (b 7/3/1802, d. 9/2/1851 or 7 both dates from MT).
Note Maitland Tree spells the name Sheman, but all records show Sherman.
St E Pr missing this date, but found notice in Jamaica Royal Gazette (1832, CO141-27): marriage, 8th November, at Giddy Hall, Samuel Sherman by Rev W. Hylton to Emma, only daughter of the late Francis Maitland.
Samuel Sherman mentioned as executor in Ann Maitland's will.
She must have inherited Mitcham pen from her mother as her descendants lived there until the mid 20thC. Samuel Sherman was listed as proprietor in 1840 & 1845.
She arr Black River, 4/1/1832, aged 17 on board SS Volusia, with brother AndrewPJR.
IGI: Emma Rebecca M. ch 28/6/1846 at St Leonards, Shoreditch.
Father George M, Mother Sarah. Perhaps daughter, named after her aunt. BC checked: not ours!
MT: b. 14/4/1817 d.19/12/1850
MB: born at 10 o'clock at night, departed this life December 19th 1850 at Holland Estate in this parish aged 33 years.
StE PR: Christened 23/3/1821 (b.14/4/1818)
No evidence of any issue.
Holland estate belonged to the Gladstone family in 1845 and was about 4500 acres near Lacovia: George may have been a manager there.
MT: b. 31/5/1819 d. 28/11/1835
MB: born at Giddy Hall on the 31st May 1819 at 12 o'clock
noon. Departed this life November 28th 1835 Appleton aged 16
years. StE PR: Christened 23/3/1821 (b.31/5/1819)
MT: b 20/1/1821, StE PR: Ch 23/3/1821 Giddy Hall, born 20/1/1821 (St E PR Vol 2, folio 57) copy held.
MB: born at Giddy Hall on the
20th January 1821.
Died: MT: 24/6/1902. & D/C @ Tylehurst, Bexley.
Septimus Maitland came to England early in his life, probably with his mother, who died in London in 1833; by 1841 he was resident in what looks like lodgings (no other family obviously there) in Commercial Road, Mile End Old Town (Stepney), London aged 20 of independent means. He became a teabroker, operating as Maitland, Cock and Gabriel of 9, Fenchurch St, London (an address quoted on his will of 16/9/1876). At that time, he made Francis (2)'s son John Andrew one of his executors, showing a connection at the time. It seems likely that Septimus' tea connections may have been the impetus which sent Francis (3)'s children out to the Far East.
He was living at Ditton Place, Maidstone, Kent in 1861 & 71, a handsome mansion. The son and daughter of his brother, Andrew, spent their holidays there during the 1860's. He later moved to Tylehurst, near Bexley.
An intriguing line of no obvious connection with us is the (Tea) Clipper, Maitland, built in 1865 in Sunderland. There is no evidence of any connection with Septimus, but the thought is there!
From the Sunderland Echo, 1949: MAITLAND was one of the tea clippers designed by William Pile for speed, but proved in performance to be a grave disappointment.
1) Susan Mcbride 15/1/1856, Glasgow (PR).
2) Julia Wilson. 5/12/1867, Bathwick (M/C).
Described variously as "Funded Proprietor", Gentleman, Farmer,
Independent Means. Was a partner in Teamerchants.
Issue (ref MT):
2/1. Francis John, b.: 27/12/1856 at New Barns, West MallingBC
1881 not found.
MT: "Frank" (m Aggie):
1901 directory: FJ Maitland, merchant Maitland & Co
FO 917 Foreign Office: Supreme
Court, Shanghai, China: Probate Records Subseries within FO 917/1262
Administration and Probate of Estates and Wills. Will 1907.
From Alistair Angus, 5/10:
....and came across a copy of the 'Sport and Gossip' dated Sunday January 27th 1907. The 'Sport and Gossip' was a newspaper produced in Shanghai by "Daybreak" who was in fact Frank J Maitland, son of Septimus. This copy reports the death, the previous day, of Frank. Harry, my great grandfather and Frank's brother, was with Frank in Shanghai at the time and had called the doctors earlier in the week.
Ref Beth Maitland, was Master of Shanghai Paper Hunt
several times. Ref "A History of the Shanghai Paper Hunt
Club 1863-1930". In a book called China Races by Austin
Coates (1983) a Frank Maitland is mentioned "Frank Maitland, founder of the firm of that name - another of those firms which from nothing seemed to spread a long way in all directions - was a tremendous figure in Shanghai paper hunt circles."
The 1879 North-China Desk Hong List (the annual business directory) lists Maitland & Co., at 9a Yangtsze Road, with J. Andrew Maitland (absent) and five others, one of them F.J. Maitland.
A photo of the Stewards 1895-6 shows him; he also appears in Eleanor (Poole) Maitland's album of photographs from the 1895-1903 era in Yokohama and Shanghai.
Ref PJR, married Margaret,
3/1. Francis John Maitland, born 1875.
FO 917/2321 1922 Shanghai.
3/2. Ethel Maitland, born 1880.
2/2. Edith B Maitland, born 1859 (Census) (or Edith Margaret).
MT: Nedie, who m William
Kennedy. Ref P.Rush, she died 1937, he 1938.
1881 Census with mother.
2/3. Anne Emma Maitland born: 12/7/1860, Ditton (BC). Unm 1914.
Legacy of £500 from cousin John
Andrew M. in his will, 1914.
May have married RW Blacklock and died 1954.
2/4. Harry Maitland: Born 1862, Ditton (MT: m Alice Winson)
Died 13/5/1925 Harrow, of
'Disseminated Scherosis & Cancer of Larynx'. Registered by Edith Margaret
Kennedy (Nedie), his sister.
1881 not found.
1901 directory: H Maitland, merchant Maitland & Co, Shanghai.
1910 directory: H Maitland, manager, Maitland & Co, Shanghai
1925 directory: H Maitland, assist. Jardine Matheson Shanghai.
Is this the same one? Possibly Hugh, son of Andrew Wright M.
Also mentioned in "A History of the Shanghai Paper Hunt Club".
Much of this line from Alistair Angus[vii], Nov 2006:
Married 18/11/1903, Fairhaven, Massachusetts:
Alice Winsor, b prob Shanghai 1875, d 17/5/1961, Harrow.
Her father at least, fourth generation sea captain (out of the east coast of the USA), established, through him, a direct line back to several passengers on the Mayflower (Alden, Bradford, Brewster etc)..
Harry's alien passenger papers for entry into the USA from the UK in 1903. Rather ambiguously they state that he was en-route to Shanghai but would be 'remaining in Boston for a few days'! That is dated 20 October. On 14 August 1904 their only child, my grandmother, was born and was named Alma Ingraham Maitland. In due course Harry, Alice & Alma moved back to the UK and settled in Harrow. I have found a 1905 record from Harry travelling from Yokohama to San Francisco and one from 1914 (prior to the outbreak of the war) of Alice & Alma travelling to Boston to visit Alice's mother but Harry must have stayed at home or travelled by a different route.
My information is sketchy. Harry died before any of his grandchildren were born and Alice and Alma both died before I was born. Harry was quite an old father; he was 43 when Alma was born.
I am going to try and get to the Records Office in London in the New Year. There is the link with St Clement, Danes and I just wonder if anything of profit can come from that source. From sight of Francis' marriage certificate (as produced in about 1927) the information will be slight as it only records the names of the bride & groom.
3/1. dau Alma Ingraham Maitland B Fairhaven, 14/8/1904.
D. 6/1/1961, lung cancer.
M. Henry John Wasbrough (MT: Desborough) 26/9/1925
(always known as John) was a solicitor (like his father) and, in the immediate years after his marriage, obtained copies of the burial certificate of Francis Maitland, the baptismal record, marriage certificate & death certificate of Septimus & Harry's birth certificate.
Lived, until retirement, in Harrow. At some point in the 1930's swapped houses with, the by now widowed, Alice Maitland. HJW a descendant of Richard Knight of Wolverley, an 18th century ironmaster (ref Tim Serisier, 3/07).
4/1. Susan Caroline Wasbrough, b 1927.
M. Alexander Butler Williams, D
5/1. Carol Williams, M + 2 children
5/2. Nicola Williams, 11/2006: presently living in
Jamaica with her husband who is in the FO.
4/2. Linda Jane Wasbrough, b 1931
M. David Gillespie Angus, 1960.
Living Dorset 11/2006.
5/1. Alistair Angus, b. 1952.
M Heidi. Living Dorset, 11/06
5/2. Susan Angus, b 1965.
M Neil Rollings, 2 children. Living Glasgow 11/06.
4/3. William Maitland Wasbrough b. 1935.
Married to Diane
5/1. Claire Wasbrough.
5/2. Matthew Washbrough.
Married (1): Susan Houston McBride 15/1/1856 at Hutchestown, Glasgow.
SRO: 15/1/1856 married at Albyn House, Little Govan, Glasgow, Susan McBride. His age 35, hers 24. His residence: 64 West Regent St, Glasgow, usually London.
(64 W, Regent St a lodging house in 1851 census).
Her residence: Albyn House.
His parents: Francis Maitland (Planter), deceased & Ann M. (formerly Wright).
Her parents: John McBride, manufacturer & Margaret, formerly Welsh.
He was a cotton mill owners/managers from Glasgow.
OPR: John McBride married Margaret Welsh, 9/12/1810 at Sorn, Ayr (FR469). Record itself shows nothing else.
Certificate (Bath 5c 1101 12/1867) gives:
Married at The parish Church, Bathwick 5/12/1867. Septimus M, full age widower, Gentleman, of Ditton, Maidstone, father's name Francis, Gentleman. Julia Anne Wilson, full age spinster, of Pultney St, father's name: William Wilson, Gentleman.
Witnesses: William, Maria Ellen & Richard W. Wilson & Ernest Theryell?.
1856 (1st marriage): Usually resident in London.
27/12/1856: birth of son Francis John at New Barnes, West Malling, a "Funded Proprietor".
12/7/1860: birth of daughter Annie at Ditton, a farmer.
1861 Census: At Ditton Place, Ditton, Maidstone, a farm of 126 acres employing 11 men & 3 lads.
(1851: John Golding, aged 82, 232 acres).
Septimus (Hd, 40, farmer, Jamaica), Susan (Wf 29, Scotland), Francis A. (son, 4, W. Malling), Edith (dau, 2, W. Malling), Ann E. (dau, 8 mths, Ditton), Ann R. (sister-in-law, 50, widow, landed proprietor, Jamaica), Ann K. (niece, 11, Scholar, Jamaica) Andrew W. (nephew, 8, Jamaica), Ann Church (visitor, 42), Sarah (vis, 16)
1861, Stanford le Hope, Essex:
Charles Wilson (57, Farmer, 636 acres, 23 men & 6 boys), Elizabeth (61), Julia A (33, Corringham), Maria C (30, Stanford le Hope).
1867 (2nd marriage):
At Ditton Place, Gentleman, widower. (father: Francis, gentleman)
1871 Census: At Ditton Place, now 118 acres employing 14 men and 3 lads.
Septimus (50, farmer, Jamaica), Julia Ann (42, Corringham), Francis John (14, Scholar, W Malling), Anne Emma (12, Scholar, Ditton), Harry (9, Ditton), Edith Margaret (12).
1875-79: Kelly's Directory shows a Septimus M. as a partner in Teamerchants Cock Gabriel and Maitland of 9, Fenchurch St between 1875-79.
1881 Census: "Emmetts", Brasted Kent (RG110909f44) visiting Richard Sibbs.
1881 Census: 8, Addison Crescent, Kensington:
Julia A. Maitland (53, Coldingham Essex), Edith (22, Wateringbury), Annie E. (20, Ditton), Annie K. (32, Jamaica).
1880's-90's: PO Directory shows a William Monkman Maitland as a tea broker: no obvious connection.
1891 Census, Mount Harry (Rd),Sevenoaks Kent:
Septimus Maitland (70, Living on own means, Jamaica), Julia A. (63 Essex, Corringham), + 2 servants.
1901 Census, Tylehurst, Parkhurst Rd, Bexley:
Septimus Maitland (80, no occupation), Julia (73), Ada Wilson (niece, 30, Hants Wormley). + 2 servants.
24/6/1902: died at "Tylehurst", Parkhurst rd, Bexley, age 81, Independent, of Capilliary Bronchitis, Informant Frank John Maitland, son, also at Tylehurst (resident?).
Death Duty Reg: Liverpool, Executor JA Maitland
Prob London 21/7/1902 to Julia Ann Maitland, £2802-17-8.
For full transcript see Maitland Wills.
10/3/1823, d: 28/10/1840
MB: born at Giddy Hall 10th of March 1823. Departed this life at Giddy Hall October 28th 1840 aged 17 years.
IGI: ch 14/12/1825, St Mark, Kennington.
LRO Parish Records (microfilm X15/115): Christened St Mark, Kennington. Abode: (Commercial Place?) Lambeth, father's profession: Gentleman. Priest K Edwards.
LDS microfilm (1223998) of St Elizabeth parish records shows:
"Octavius Maitland, Planter, 18 years, abode Font Hill Estate, buried 29 Oct 1840 at Giddy Hall." (Font Hill is about 5 miles from Giddy Hall and was owned by the Beckford family).
Octavius Maitland & Christiana had issue:
Thomas Emanuel 24/5/1861
Charlotte Augusta 5/8/1859
Ellen Elizabeth 21/10/1853
Nicholas Sherman, base son of Sarah free negro about 6 months old baptised 19 June 1762 (St E V1 P23).
Some early-mid 19thC Shermans in Hanover. Probably not related.
1835: Planter of Saltspring
1838: Mitchum 44 apprentices.
1838/39: Samuel Sherman Quartermaster, St E Militia (AWM surgeon).
1840: Sherman Samuel, Mitcham, 807 acres
1845: Sherman S Mitcham 843 acres
1891: Sherman & Roberts: storekeepers @ Balaclava, St E., in directory.
Issue of Samuel & Emma Rebecca (Maitland) Sherman:
(LDS copy records by AM, and web
index 9/2010, not yet complete, so answers not complete!):
2/1. Henry Maitland Sherman:
Born 7/10/1833 (MT) 17/10/1833,
Ch 17/10/1835 (PR),
Father Planter of Saltspring (PR).
Manchester 1878: Smithfield (Grazing Pen), H. Sherman proprietor, Newport
name: Ann Sherman
event: Christening event date: 28 Mar 1873 All Parishes, Jamaica
father: Henry Sherman mother: Emily
2/2. Alfred Sherman Born: 6/7/1835, Ch 17/10/1835, (PR & MT)
Royal Gazette gives birth of a
son to Samuel Sherman of Saltspring.
Married Roberta Josephine James, 21 June 1860, St Elizabeth
Wills 1894-1903: Sherman, Alfred, ITEM 6, 1899 #30
Issue, St Elizabeth (from LDS online index & associated film images):
3/1. Eva Maria Sherman, 11 June 1861.
Issue by husband Charles Desmond
Arscott (a druggist):
4/1. Frank Ewart Sherman Arscott, b 10/10/1899, Berry Hill St Ann.
NB: Negil Sherman married Annie Arscott of St Anns
3/2. Samuel Joseph Sherman,
ch 6/2/1863, St Elizabeth, of Alfred & Roberta.
3/3. Emma Maitland Sherman, b 8/12/1864, ch 23/2/1865 of Mitcham
Married HC (Cleon) Roberts,
produce Dealer. May have been in business in Balaclava with a Sherman.
4/1. Enid Audrey Maitland Roberts, father HC of Mount Pleasant,
mother Emma, 17 December 1893, Mount Pleasant, Clarendon.
4/2. Linden Cleon Roberts, 2/10/1898, Florbell, Milk River
Clarendon. Mother indexed as Anna, but looks more like Emma.
3/4. Anne Sherman, b. 6/7/1866, ch. 30/9/1866,
planter of Orange Grove, St Elizabeth.
2/3. William Frederick Sherman Born 14/3/1837 (PR, MT)
Died 30/1/1856 (MT). (Samuel planter PR)
2/4. Charles Welby Sherman, ch 10/3/1845, Manchester.
Original MT has: born 16/7/1841, died 1/9/1853.
Other contemporary Shermans:
Isaac Levy & Ann Sherman, St Elizabeth:
Benjamin Ash 3/4/1853
Bridget Elizabeth 29/9/1858
Death: an Emma Sherman buried St Elizabeth, 4 March 1863 Film 1223999 2 95. Res Lovely Point, 2 yrs old.
Sherman, Katherine Elizabeth, born 2/12/1860, baptized 5/9/1861. St. Elizabeth Anglican, B0057, VI page 90
Sherman, William Ambrose, b 7/30/1872, bap 9/11/1872. P= Francis & Matilda Sherman. Sp= William Zepilin, Elizabeth Malabre. BB p. 13 Roman Catholic records.
Richard Sherman & Margaret Swaby, Westmoreland:
Nicholas 18/1/1887, @ Revival
Peter 25/12/1891, @ St Paul’s
Marriage indices (LDS film 1563486) 1880-92 grooms checked, only Sherman found: St E (1880-86) James A Sherman M Henrietta L Cuff (ref 1063).
Birth film 1389339 Civil reg 1892 checked – no Negil (or Shermans).
In 1910 a Bertha Sherman had a sugar plantation in Trelawney named Maitland.
From Raymond McIntosh, John Sherman & Andrea (Sherman) Marshall,
Shermans also owned Gosham, St Elizabeth, but said to have lost it somehow.
Probably a son of Henry or Alfred Sherman, possibly a grand son.
0/1. Thomas Sherman & Eliza (Shivers?)
Jamaica Civil Reg:
event date: 27 Nov 1885
event place: St. Elizabeth, Jamaica
father: Thomas Sherman
mother: Ann Chivers
digital folder number: 4540701
Wills 1927: Sherman, Thomas 76
They owned Pennants Great House.
1/1. Negil Erickson Sherman b 1892 at Pennants, Clarendon, died 1934
owned Mitcham, married Annie Arscott
(from St Anns), dau of Alfred A.
He lived with Annie on Ocean View Avenue and had a property on Molynes Rd. by the name of Holmwood. JS brought up there, before moving to Spaldings N. of Mandeville. Alfred had a small coffee plantation and other spices there.
2/1. Garth Sherman,
name: Garth Sherman
event: Birth event date: 07 Jun 1927
event place: Kingston, Kingston, Jamaica
father: Negil Eric Sherman mother: Annie Elise Arscott
2/2. Denzil Earle, married Beverley; he died about 2005, Miami.
name: Denzil Sherman
event date: 13 Sep 1928
event place: Kingston, Jamaica
father: Negil Eric Sherman
2/3. John Sherman[x] (born about 1932) m. Audrey Hope Grannum,
dau of Seymour & Merelle
Bromfields connected to the Greens in Ocho Rios.
Merelle dau of Julius & Imla Asinath (Bromfield) Green
Imla dau of David Hutchinson & Margaret (Clacken) Bromfield.
David s of William Mullings & Ellen (Hutchinson) Bromfield
William s of John Frederick & Mary (Mullings) Bromfield
John s of Andrew & Rose (Reynolds) Bromfield
JS married 2nd Sheila.
3/1. Michelle Sherman.
Brought up in Ocho Rios, school in Kingston.
2/4. Jean Sherman.
name: Jean Amarylis Sherman
event: BIRTH event date: 26 Feb 1930
event place: Kingston, Jamaica
father: Negil Eric Sherman mother: Annie Elise Arscott
1/2. Cecil Sherman married Alva Duffus
and had a daughter Mag?
1/3. Cyril Sherman (no children)
1/4. Elizabeth (Pinnie) Sherman married Brooks
1/5. Mary Sherman "Tuku",
married Lalor who died in an army accident. She then married a Wilson. She had something to do with the MacNaughts Beryl, Jimmy, Roy and Barry
Christopher Levemore Mccormack Sherman, b 30/12/1884 St Andrew
Christopher Levemore Mccormack Sherman, b 30/12/1884,
Parents: Christopher Augustus & Johanna Vilatte Taylor Sherman
Henry James Sherman, b 6/12/1835, Hanover
Parents: Thomas George Sherman & Edith Samuels
Elsie Albertha Sherman, b 21/6/1901, St Andrew, Butler
Charles Hubert Seymour Sherman, b 10/4/1903, St Andrew.
(Butler, Clarence Town)
Arthur Jardine Sherman, b 26/8/1899, St Andrew. (A Butler of Sunderry Cottage, Cross Roads, St Andrew)
Parents: Frederick Emanuel & Ella Robertha (Powell) Sherman
Frank Ewart Sherman Arscott, b 10/10/1899 St Ann
Parents Charles Desmond Eva Maria (Sherman) Arscott a Druggist, Berry Hill St Andrew
Clark, b 18/11/1920, Kingston
Parents: Albert Clark & Florence Sherman
Thomas Ewell James, b 23/2/1859, StE
Parents: Thomas Ewell James & Ellen Sherman
Gilpin, b 27/12/1845, Hanover,
Parents: Baring Gilpin & Mary Sherman
Parents: Frank Sherman & Emma Morgan
Clifford Samuel Robinson, b 23/6/1910, Mount Charles St Andrew,
Parents: James & Edith (Sherman) Robinson, job cultivation illiterate
see John Maitland for John Maitland's story/
The mother of Francis Maitland (1)
St Elizabeth PR: Born: St Elizabeth, May 1749.
Parent: Patty Penford, mulatto, father maybe Dunston Wright.
Partner: John Maitland
Died: early 1805, Bristol, buried Black River.
For more details see Wright Family chapter which includes will and other details.
1/1. Francis Maitland, ch. 25/2/1784.
1/2. Richard Maitland, ch 4/8/1786. (StE PR)
Born: Abt 1752, probably England.
Parents: Francis & Ann Marie Wright of St Catherine.
Partner: Ruth Sinclair, mulatto, in Jamaica.
Married: Elizabeth Mary Pusey.
Died: 24/2/1806, Mitcham, Surrey, England.
For more details see Wright Family chapter, which includes will, property and other information.
St Elizabeth PR a free "mestize" in children's record:
Born: abt 1764, ch April 1768 age abt 4 yrs.
Parent: dau of Judith Burton by John Sinclair.
Partner: Mr Andrew Wright.
For more details, see the chapter on her family
Issue: (both reputed daughters of Mr. Andrew Wright by Ruth Sinclair, a free Mestize, child reputed white, named Wright in PR):
1/1. Ann Wright (2/1788).
1/2. Rebecca Wright (ref AW's will)
1/3. Mary Wright (9/1790) d of Andrew W by a negro, Ruth Sinclair.
There is little doubt that our Harriet Carpenter was the one born in Lower Shillingford in 1812.
I had thought that Harriet Carpenter’s father, John was the one who had a family in Topsham, and have recorded an extensive line of ancestors of his. This theory has always been difficult to rationalise with some of the dates.
Further interrogation of the IGI came up with a John Carpenter in Alphington, which adjoins Shillingford St George. This looks much more plausible, and was been examined at the Exeter Record Office in July 2011 where I found that some critical parishes round there were not on the IGI.
Lingering uncertainties are Harriet’s claim for her father’s occupation at her 2nd marriage in 1847 as a farmer, when John Carpenter appears to be a Stone Mason in 1851 & 61. However, this line would seem to be the most plausible.
How on earth did Francis & Harriet meet??
Was John as a Stone mason working away on the Canals or Railways? Maybe Francis & Harriet met as a result of Francis’s sailing into an Exe port.
Harriet in Francis’s will was of Exeter, and one Executor was also of Exeter. She probably went back to her family when he was off on a voyage.
More research needs to be done on the parish records in Devon, especially those not on the IGI and for James’s parents and his wife’s family.
Tithe records for Ide need examining and any other parish where John Carpenter might have been then.
Wills are not extant for most of Devon, having been lost in the 2nd War. Some indexes have been checked to no avail, as well as the Canterbury wills.
JOHN CARPENTER - 1791
Ch: 7/8/1791, AlphingtonPR
Parents: James & Grace (Taylor) Carpenter.
This line looks more plausible:
John was a farmer when Harriet married second time in 1847 and appeared to be alive.
At Harriet’s ch, of Lower Shillingford, between Shillingford St George & Alphington: Lower Shillington was part of Exminster parish at the time. Harriet’s twin was James. Looking at the parish records of Alphington, a number of people appear whose abode was Exminster.
John’s (1st) marriage to Elizabeth has not been found, but a number of parishes around there are not on the IGI, including Ide.
1841: no trace in Ancestry.com
1851 Census: Cheriton Bishop, Devon, Cottage
John Carpenter (60, Mason, Alphington), Ann (wf, 61, Dunchideoch [adjoins Alphington]) Sarah Ann (25, Exeter)
1861 Census, Midway Terr. Alphington:
John Carpenter (70, Stone Mason, Alphington), Sarah Ann (wf, 42, Glover, Alphington), George (son, 6, Scholar, Alphington).
1871 Census, Exeter Rd, Alphington:
Ann Carpenter (Hd, 45, unm, charwoman, Alphington), George (son, unm, 13, Alphington).
Issue of John Carpenter:
Alphington PR Bapts to 1825.
1/1. Frances Carpenter C: 11/10/1807 of John & Elizabeth,
No further info on AlphingtonPR
IGI: Fanny Carpenter married Richard Baker, 6/9/1831, St Mary Major, Exeter.
1/2. Harriet Carpenter, b. 1812, Shillingford Devon.
Baptism: September 27, 1812, Shillingford Devon of Lower Shillingford (PR).
1/3. James Carpenter, b. 1812, Shillingford Devon.
Baptism: September 27, 1812,
Shillingford Devon (PR)
1841 Census, Prospect Place, Exeter, St Mary Major:
James Carpenter (25, Painter, Y), Mary (25, Y), Harriet (3, Y), Elizabeth (1,Y).
1851 Census, 4 Market St, Exeter (all b Exeter):
James Carpenter (38, Glazier), Mary (35), Harriett (13, scholar), Elizabeth (11, scholar), John (7, scholar), Frank (5, scholar), Mary (1).
1861 Census, Rack St, Exeter. (all b Exeter except James).
James Carpenter (48, Painter, Shillingford), Mary (45), John (17), Frank (15, Watch Maker Ap), Mary (11, scholar), Fanny (7, scholar), Harriet Davis (dau, 23, wife of mariner), James Davis (5mths)
1871 Census, Prospect Place, Exeter:
James Carpenter (58, Painter, Exeter), Mary (55), Mary (21, Servant).
1881 Census, 7 Verney Place, Exeter:
Mary Carpenter (65, Hd, widow, annuitant, Exeter), Fanny (dau, 26, Exeter), Samuel Adams (boarder, 22, Grocer's assistant, Helston, Cornwall).
2/1. Harriet Carpenter abt 1838, Exeter.
M. Mr Davis, a mariner.
3/1. James Davis b. 1860.
2/2. John Carpenter 1844
2/3. Frank Carpenter, b. abt 1846
1871 Census, Prospect Place, Exeter:
Frank Carpenter (25, Builder & Glazier, Ex), Emma (22, machinist, Ex), Emma (2, Ex).
1881 Census, 4 Rack St, Exeter:
Frank Carpenter, (35, Painter, Ex), Emma (32, Machinist, Ex), Emma (12, scholar, Ex), Fanny (9, scholar, Ex), Frank (6, Scholar, Ex), Harry (3, scholar, Ex), John G. (1, Ex).
1891 Census, 22, Bonhay Rd, St Edumnd, Exeter: (all b Exeter)
Frank Carpenter (45, Decorator), Emma (42), Frank (17, Clerk), Harry (14, Painter's apprentice), John (12, scholar), Lizzie (6, scholar), William (3, scholar), James (1)
1901 Census, 22, Bonhay Rd (Eagle Cottage):
Frank Carpenter (55, house decorator), Emma (53), Frank (27, Surveyor's draughtsman), Harry (23, house decorator), William (13, Desk Clerk), James (11), Charles M. (9, Ex), Frederick (6, Ex).
3/1. Emma Carpenter, abt 1869.
3/2. Fanny Carpenter, abt 1873.
3/3. Frank Carpenter, abt 1875.
3/4. Harry Carpenter, abt 1878.
3/5. John G. Carpenter, abt 1880.
3/6. Lizzie Carpenter, abt 1885.
3/7. William Carpenter, abt 1888.
3/8. James Carpenter, abt 1890.
3/9. Charles M Carpenter, abt 1892.
3/10. Frederick Carpenter, abt 1895.
2/4. Mary b abt 1850.
2/5. Fanny Carpenter, b. abt 1854.
1/4. John Carpenter C: 19 Feb 1815 of J&E, Alphington, Devon,
PR Shows: Labourer of Exminster.
IGI: John Carpenter M Ann Southwood, St Sidwell, Exeter, 5/5/1817.
IGI: Ann Southwood ch 4/4/1790, Dunchideoch, of Richard & Ann.
1/5. James John s of John & Ann of Exminster Mason 6/12/1818, Alphington.
NB: Ide not on IGI.
John Carpenter farming at Pengilly Farm, Lower Shillingford in the 1890’s
James Carpenter ch 10/6/1759 of Edward & Mary, Ide (PR)
James Carpenter bur Alphington 8/3/1810 aged 51 (PR).
Calendars of wills and administrations relating to the counties of Devon and Cornwall : proved in the Court of the Principal Registry of the bishop of Exeter, 1559-1799 : and of Devon only, proved in the Court of the Archdeaconry of Exeter, 1540-1799 : all now preserved in the Probate Registry at Exeter. London: British Record Society, 1908.
Many others but Alph & Shill:
John Carpenter, Alphington 1633, “a.c.t.” (Admon copy Testament?)
John Snr, Alphington, 1639, will
Elizabeth, Shillingford, 1696, will
John, Alphington, 1705, Will
John, Alphington, 1722, Admon
Thomas, Alphington, 1727, Admon
Thomas, Alphington, 1738, I
Married 1st Ide:
Elizabeth Bulley, both OTP (PR):
Banns 14,21,28 Sept 1777, Mar 8/10/1777, he signed, she marked, Wit Edward Carpenter
Elizabeth Carpenter Bur Ide, 19/2/1778
1/1. Mary Carpenter ch 15/2/1778 of James & Elizabeth (PR)
James Carpenter, widower, m Grace Taylor both OTP Banns 13, 20 & 27 June 1779
Married 25 July 1779, he signed, she marked, wit Edward Carpenter & Richard Knott.
IGI: Grace Taylor ch 1756 of Jos Taylor, Bovey Tracey. A possibility, but needs more work on local parish records. This one probably married 1778 in BT.
Issue of James & Grace, Alphington:
IGI & PR:
1/2. Ann Carpenter, ch 20/2/1780
1/3. Thomas Carpenter, ch 11/11/1781
1/4. Henry Carpenter, ch 4/9/1785 – Bur 11/7/1806, aged 21.
1/5. John Carpenter, privately 15 June 1787, Probably bur Ide 1/4/1789,
1/6. Betty Carpenter, ch 12/4/1789
Eliza Carpenter base child of Elizabeth, ch 6/8/1809, Alph., this may be correct Elizabeth!
1/7. John Carpenter, ch baptised 7/8/1791
1/8. James Carpenter, ch 20/10/1793 – bur 24/8/1794
1/9. Susannah Carpenter, ch 9/3/1796
Alphington Bur, 1770-1825:
Mary dau of Richard & Mary Carpenter bur 3/12/1788 aged 2.
Frances Carpenter age 70 widow, bur 29/3/1810.
9/3/1810, Frances Carpenter, widow aged 70
Alphington, Exminster & Shillingford Tithe awards no Carpenters
Exminster Bur 1800-1826 no Carpenters.
Ide, Bap & Bur 1755-1792, a rapid examination(!):
Edward Carpenter, Widower, M Ann Nichols of Dunsford Banns: 4,11,18 April 1779
William Vaugh, sojourner, M Dorothy Carpenter 3/11/1779
of Edward & Mary:
Mary Carpenter ch 14/1/1755
James Carpenter ch 16/6/1759
Child (unreadable) 5/11/1761
of Thomas & Elizabeth
Elizabeth Carpenter ch 1760 (month lost)
Ann Carpenter ch 17/8/1755
of John & Frances
John Carpenter ch 31/3/1777
James Carpenter, privatel Bapt 3 May, received into church 2 July 1780.
Elizabeth Carpenter of George & Elizabeth ch 14/4/1788
Grace Carpenter bur Oct 1758
Ann Carpenter 15/11/1764
Ann Carpenter 21/7/1765
Tho Carpenter 30/10/1771
John Carpenter 1/4/1789
Harriott Carpenter 30/5/1790
Sarah Taylor of Tho & Jane ch 27/1/1769
There was also a family of William & Elizabeth Carpenter and Samuel and Sarah in the next parish, Kenn.
IGI Marriage, Braunton, N Devon:
John Lamprey (IGI has or but PR a Carpenter) married Elizabeth Richards 6/6/1808.
James ch 5/6/1754 Ottery St Mary of William & Hannah (PR transcript checked).
The FTM Census 1851 disc contains many Carpenters of Devon: more investigation required (11/2002)
From Exeter Record Office:
is a small parish in the Kenn valley, on the old road from
Exeter to Plymouth, 3 miles south from Exeter, in the North Eastern division of
the county, Exminster hundred, Wonford petty sessional division, St. Thomas
union, county court district of Exeter, rural deanery of Kenn and archdeaconry
and diocese of Exeter. The church of St. George is an edifice of stone in the
Perpendicular style. . . . in the chancel is a double-canopied brass, with
kneeling effigies heraldically attired, to Sir William Huddesfield,
attorney-general to Edward IV. and of the privy council of Henry VII. and a
justice of Oyer and Terminer, ob. 20th March, 1499, and to Katherine
(Courtenay), his wife, and three children; at the foot of the brass is a Latin
inscription: Sir W. Huddesfield rebuilt the tower of the church, and on the
western face is a shield with supporters bearing his arms, impaling those of
Courtenay, and below are similar shields: there is another brass with
inscriptions to John Seaman B.A. "preacher of God's Holy Word in
Shillingford," ob. 25th April, 1664: the east window is a memorial of Lady
Palk, and there is another memorial window to Mrs. Pitman, of Dunchideock:
there are 115 sittings. The register of baptisms and burials dates from the year
1565; marriages, 1569. . . The chief crops are barley, oats and pasture. The
area is 415 acres; rateable value, £700; the population in 1901 was 63."
[From: Kelly's Directory of Devonshire, 1902]
...a neat and pleasant village on the western side of the
river Exe, 1½ mile S. of Exeter, has in its parish 1286 inhabitants, and about
2700 acres of fertile land, traversed by the South Devon Railway and Exeter
Ship canal. It has cattle fairs on the first Wednesday after the 20th of June,
and on the Wednesday after Michaelmasday. It was one of the principal quarters
of Sir Thos. Fairfax's army, when he was blockading Exeter, in 1646. The Earl
of Devon owns most of the soil, and is lord of the manor of Alphington, which
was obtained by his family in the reign of Richard II., in exchange, from the
Seagraves. Matford, formerly a seat of the Smith and other families, belongs to
Sir L.V. Palk, and several smaller proprietors have estates and neat houses
here. Risdon says a man named Stone died here at the age of 120 years, in the
reign of Elizabeth. On July 2nd, 1760, by the sudden inundation of the rivulet
which runs through the village to the Exe, upwards of 20 houses are said to
have been thrown down, and the damage was computed at upwards of £1000. The
Church, (St. Michael,) is a large antique fabric, with a tower and eight
bells." [From White's Devonshire Directory (1850)]
Topsham was one of three ports administered by the City and Corporation of Exeter. In the early 1970s all three still had foreign trade. Topsham was the river port. The middle one, both in location and size of vessel. Capable of berthing ships of up to 500 gross tonnage Exeter Basin saw the occasional 200 ton coaster. Exmouth Dock was the sea port. There were sometimes three or four vessels in the Dock. In those not so far off days, every now and then a mobile crane would rumble onto Topsham Quay. A ship would arrive, the throb of diesels engines carrying across the water on the rising tide. Foreign voices heard. Shouts. The smell of sawn pine, the intermittent roar of the crane, the echo of plank landing on plank, the grind of lorries carrying away the cargo through the narrow twisting streets, the muted clatter of the auxiliary engine. A bustle, a purpose, the essence of a port, the town alive. New faces in the local pubs. New stories told and barely understood. Then after a few days the ship would depart. The town would slip back again into itself. For some this was a continuance of history. What it was all about. A working port. A river used for the carriage of cargo, as it had been for hundreds of years. The arrival of a foreign ship a red letter day.
From THE SOUTH WEST MARITIME HISTORY SOCIETY, June 2003
TOPSHAM, from Parish history file in Topsham Library.
District or unitary council: Exeter
Deanery: Aylesbeare (basis of arrangement for typescript "Church notes" by Beatrix Cresswell)
County series: 1:2,500 sheet 92/4 Six inch sheet (1:10560) 92NE
National grid sheets. (National grid reference for centre point: SX965884) - 1:10,000 sheet: SX98NE
- 1:25,000 sheet: Explorer 031
- Landranger (1:50,000) sheet: 192
Greenwood survey of area (1827)
Geological sheet: 325
Population: 2749 (1801) 2790 (1901)
Valuation in 1334: £01/08/08
Valuation in lay subsidy of 1524: £20/05/00
Number signing Protestation returns, 1641/2: 293
Recorded as borough from 1257
Market recorded: 1822
(From JFH & BAH)
Descendants of Thomas Tomlinson
1. Thomas Tomlinson was born 1726, and died December 30, 1790 in Savanna la mar, Westmoreland. He married Susannah (Tomlinson). She was born 1743, and died August 12, 1791 in Savanna la mar, Westmoreland.
Addressed as: Esquire
Burial: December 30, 1790, Westmoreland (Source: B0003 Westmoreland Parish Register I, 1739-1825, p. 99.) Occupation: Collecting Constable
MI of Jamaica #1857:
Savannah la Mar Dolling Street Burial Ground no 2:
Thomas Tomlinson esq d 30 December 1790 aged 64
Susannah Tomlinson wife of the above died 12 August 1791
More About Susannah (Tomlinson):
Burial: August 13, 1791, Westmoreland (Source: B0003 Westmoreland Parish Register I, 1739-1825, p. 100.) aged 48
Children of Thomas Tomlinson and Susannah (Tomlinson) are:
2 i. John Tomlinson, died February 1782.
Burial: February 06, 1782, Westmoreland
3 ii. Robert Tomlinson, born Bef. April 07, 1772.
Baptism: April 07, 1772, Westmoreland
4 iii. Susannah Tomlinson, born Bef. March 31, 1777.
Baptism: March 31, 1777, Westmoreland
5. Thomas Tomlinson (Thomas) was Bap March 31, 1777 (Source: B0003 Westmoreland Parish Register I, 1739-1825, p. 86.), and died August 02, 1817 in Bath Pen, Westmoreland. He married Charlotte Beckford Hill December 18, 1808 in Westmoreland (Source: B0003 Westmoreland Parish Register I, 1739-1825, p. 149.). She was born Abt. 1783.
Burial: August 03, 1817, Goodins Pen burial ground, Westmoreland
Occupation: Collecting Constable
Status of bride/groom: Spinster
Child of Thomas Tomlinson and Charlotte Hill is:
7 i. Thomasina Tomlinson, born Bef. October 05, 1817.
Baptism: October 05, 1817, At the house of Dr. Henry Distin,
Savanna la mar, Westmoreland
6 v. George Tomlinson, born Bef. April 10, 1783.
Baptism: April 10, 1783, Westmoreland
1754: Tomlinson, Thomas, Westmoreland 7, St. Elizabeth 500, Tot 507.
Thomas Tomlinson & 3 brothers reputed to have come to Jamaica 1775.
Thomas Tomlinson, died 1848 (a descendant of Major T Jamaica abt 1640)PJR
M. Charlotte Bedford Hill (B Giddy Hall, d. 1869 Mt. CharlesPJR)
(who had married first Charles Burlton,)
1/1. Charlotte Tomlinson, died 1834BAH,
M. 26/3/1822, Westmoreland, James
Edward Burlton d 1853 BAH
James Edward Burlton at Mount Charles in 1840, his heirs in 1845.JA
Vestreyman St E 1838JA. (also John Earle).
2/1. Edward James Burlton (1823-1840)
Memorial at Black River Church:
Sacred to the memory of Edward James Burlton, only child of James Edward and Charlotte Burlton of this parish; he died at sea, on the 7th of Septr 1840, aged 17 years.
Death at Sea:
At sea on 7th Sep last on board the barque Sophia, Capt Barclay from Black River for London. Mr Edward James Burlton aged 17 years only son of James E Burlton Esq of the parish of St Elizabeth in this Island.
Dec 4th 1840 Morning Journal.
1/2. Anna Katherine Tomlinson
Ref PJR (with additions from BAH):
Ann Earle was daughter of Thomas and Charlotte (Hill) Tomlinson and was born Savannah la Mar, 10/1/1811, died Mount Charles, 22/1/1886.
Ann Catherine Tomlinson married, 1st: John William Earl, by whom she had 3 children, (ref PJR)
PR: Bur of John Earl, 28/6/1843 abt 41, of Mt Olivet & @ Mt Olivet. (Mt Olivet a property owned by J. Earl).
See Jamaica General for more.
Ann married, 2nd: Andrew Wright Maitland
Issue of John & Ann (Tomlinson) Earl (for AWM's issue see under his entry):
2/1. John William Earl, born 1837, 3 sons, 6 dausPJR, d 1912BAH;
M Mary Elmina Calder, d of John Calder.
3/1. Charles Edward Earle (1869-1954)
3/2. John Calder Earle (1881-1957)
M. Stella Mia Pulford (1893-1970)
2/2. Edward Muirhead Earl, born 24/4/1840PJR & PR,
ch 28/5/1843, child of John & Ann K Earl, planter of Mt OlivetPR
According to Peter Rushbrook,
who knew the wife of the Earl children’s half brother, Andrew Wright M, Edward
Muirhead Earl had 6 sons 3 daus.
(NB Brett Ahsmeade Hawkins says that Edward was buried at Mount Charles as well as Charles – this does not look correct from AAAM records of his visit).
Possibly married Lydia, dau of Robert Campbell Smith, 22/4/1863, Herne Bay, Kent.
2/3. Charles J. Earl, 23/7/1842JPR-29/6/1858
(grave @ Mount Charles).
ch 28/5/1843, child of John & Ann K Earl, planter of Mt OlivetPR
Thomas Tomlinson snr and jnr mentioned several times in
Thomas Thistlwood's diaries. There was a mention of Thomas Hill, who bought Egypt estate (Westmoreland) in 6/7/1784 for £2800 (250K 2003), in a complex deal. Thomas
Tomlinson was Collector of Taxes Westmoreland 1772.
Ensigns: John Tomlinson, William Tomlinson
Magistrate Westmoreland: James Robert Tomlinson, also John Wedderburn & Thomas Thistlewood.
Gazette, 5//1793: Arrived In the Neptune, Mr. and Mrs. Grove, Miss Tomlinson, Miss Christiana B. Tomlinson, and Mr. Thomas Tomlinson.
For more details see above:
Date: Tue, 24 May 2005 09:13:19 +0100
From: "Greg Finch"[xi]
.... I am trying to trace some portraits of my Trimmer family relatives that hung at Rushbrooke Park in 1909, when they were described in some detail by Edmund Farrar in his 'Portraits in Suffolk Houses'. I would love to be able to obtain copies of them. They came to Rushbrooke via Violet Emily Trimmer who married Col. Rushbrooke in 1854 (the WE Trimmer as shown on your family tree on ancestry.com). Violet's great grandmother was the authoress Sarah Trimmer, and my 4x great grandmother. She knew the artist Henry Howard RA well, and he painted several Trimmers in the early 19th century.... He was responsible for most, if not all, of the portraits that went to Rushbrooke either with Violet or with her sister Elizabeth Henrietta Trimmer who spent her final years at Rushbrooke with her nephew (and executor) Robert Wyndham Jermyn Rushbrooke.
The ancestral home was sold by the family in 1919 together with much of its contents. The Suffolk Record Office tells me that the sale catalogue contains no obvious mention of the Trimmer family portraits. It is possible that they remained with the house, though perhaps unlikely, but in which case they might have been removed by later owners, or even perished when the house burned in 1961. It's perhaps more likely that the family kept hold of them, which is why I would love to make contact.
Your family tree shows Jermyn Rushbrooke as the son of Robert Wyndham Jermyn Rushbrooke; I believe he was a younger son since I knew of a Robert Basil Rushbrooke born in 1886....
Incidentally I found elsewhere that a Peter Rushbrooke wrote a short article for a family history publication on the divorce of Col Rushbrooke by private act of Parliament in 1853, the year before he married my distant Trimmer relative.
Sun, 15 Feb 2004 10:43:28 -0500
Peter Rushbrooke did send me some information which I will insert here. How sad that he has died. From what Peter gave me I was able to establish that Emma's family was from England, so not related to the Scottish Goodfellow family who were also living in Shanghai and I was exploring. After I insert the information from Peter Rushbrooke, I'll tell you about some further contacts who are related to Emma's family.
Information from Peter Rushbrooke.
Grandparents of Emma Theresa Goodfellow:
John Goodfellow (1813-1891), of Hanley, County Stafford, England,
Schoolmaster; married Emma Keeling (1816-1887), of Liverpool, England.
This Goodfellow family had originated in County Wiltshire, England, with the earliest record a will of George Goodfellow, yeoman & miller, of Teffont Evias County, Wiltshire, England, dated 3 March, 1680.
Parents of Emma Theresa Goodfellow:
Henry Stafford Goodfellow, Master Mariner, b. 10 Sept., 1844, Hanley, County Stafford, England; d. 25 February, 1910, Liverpool England; married Shanghai 4 March, 1876, Susannah Jane Fenning (1856-1937).
Children of Henry Stafford Goodfellow and Susannah Jane Fenning:
1. Henry Stafford Goodfellow, b. Shanghai, 1876; died Shanghai, 1918, Merchant, unmarried.
2. Emma Theresa Goodfellow, b. Shanghai, 20 July, 1878; died Wimbledon, England, 27 June, 1978. Married (1) Andrew Wright Maitland (1854-1907), banker, on 11 February, 1899, in Shanghai. They had 1 son & 1 daughter.
married (2) Harold Edblad (d. abt. 1921), Swedish Consul, on 9 July, 1909, in Shanghai. No children.
3. Susie Ellen Goodfellow (1880-1969), married Capt. Albert Edwin House, R. Navy, 1905, in Shanghai. No names given for their children.
4. Evelyn Mary Goodfellow (1882-1957), married George Moncrieff Jameson, Merchant, 1908. No children.
5. Agnes Louise Goodfellow (1884-1897). No further information about her.
Antony, Last year I had sent the above information to Andy Goodfellow who had answered an earlier posting I had put on a Goodfellow genealogy query board. Andy is now in Australia and has a website with some of his interesting Goodfellow family's history as being potters in that area of England. In fact, Andy has a pottery studio in Australia. I had looked in the online 1881 English census and found that John & Emma Goodfellow are listed as follows at Yew Tree Cottage, Trentham, Staffordshire:
John Goodfellow, Head, 67, b. Teffont Evias, Wiltshire, Writing Clerk
Emma Goodfellow, wife, 63, b. Liverpool, Lancashire
Charles F. Goodfellow, son, 20, unmarried, b. Tunstall, Stafford, Writing Clerk
Amelia W.E. Keeling, 61, Visitor, unmarried, b. Liverpool, Annuitant
Andy is a descendant of the above Charles F. Goodfellow, who would be Emma's uncle. Andy did have some interesting information about Emma's father Henry Stafford Goodfellow.
Then a month or two ago I was also contacted by Hew Goodfellow who I believe is in London He is a descendant of Emma's sister Susie Ellen Goodfellow who married Capt. Albert Edwin House (see above listing). Hew also send me some interesting information on Henry Stafford Goodfellow and his son Henry S., Jr. Hew is planning to update some of his genealogy information into a GedCom. Do you want me to send you copies of the messages from Andy and Hew, or is that getting too far off what you are wanting about Emma Goodfellow Maitland?
More of Brett Ashmeade Hawkins writing
Fri, 07 Jul 2006 16:10:54 -0400 "Brett Ashmeade-Hawkins"[xiii]
I have looked at your website over the last few years and have found it to be most interesting.
My Godfather is Russell Pulford Earle, the son of the late John Calder Earle of Mitchum Estate and the nephew of the late Charles Earle of Ashton Pen. I have quite a lot of family history on Ashton Pen and also some on Mount Charles. A distant cousin of mine, Raymond McIntosh, who is a descendant of Capt. Wilkins Cooper, of the Cooper family of Ashley Hall Estate in Trelawny, has asked me to email you. His family is said to descend from the Ashley-Coopers in England, who were Earls of Shaftsbury.
The Coopers of Giddy Hall in St. Elizabeth have always told his family that they are related to them, but he has never seen any evidence of is.
Raymond would like to know if you have any information on Capt. John Cooper, who came to Jamaica with Penn and Venables during the English Conquest of 1655 and founded Coopershill Plantation in St. Andrew. He is said to have been married to the infamous Irish heroine, Maire Ruadh (Mary MacMahon O'Brien), whose first husband was Connor O'Brien, Baron Inchiquin. of Leimaneagh Castle, near Limerick, in County Clare. Capt. John Cooper's Irish descendants owned Cooperhshill in County Sligo. Raymond has tried to email Richard Austin-Cooper, the Anglo-Irish historian, with whom I believe you are also in touch, but he must have the wrong email address because it did not go through. Would you be so kind as to forward this to Richard Austin-Cooper for him. Raymond is trying to find out if Capt. John Cooper was descended from the Ashley Coopers. Earls of Shaftsbury, and whether or not he may have been an ancestor of the Coopers who owned Ashley Hall Estate in Trelawny, Jamaica in the 18th Century.
I do hope you may be able to assist us and we look forward to hearing from shortly. Thank you so much.
Brett Ashmeade-Hawkins for Raymond Cooper McIntosh
Thu, 27 Jul 2006 20:54:28 +0100 From AM
Thanks for your email, with several interesting lines of thought! The first is your godfather's family, the Earl's, who I know were at Ashton Pen, but did not know were at Mitchum, which I thought had been owned by the Shermans from the time that my ancestor Francis Maitland's daughter, Emma Rebecca married Samuel Sherman. I can see the connection with Mount Charles, which was also quite close to Ashton. If you have anything convenient on Mount Charles from that era, I would be interested to see copies if possible.
I have not looked at the Cooper family in any detail in Jamaica (my wife's family have Cooper connections in Ireland, but they seem to have originated early in the 17thC in Surrey, England), except that they were at Giddy Hall until it was demolished in the early 1950's. Whilst Cooper is a fairly common name, it must be possible that they are related to the Coopers of Ashley Hall. I therefore cannot help on the early Jamaica Coopers. As you say, I have had contact with Richard Austin Cooper, but not for some time and with the vagaries of email system changes have not got his address at all, even a wrong one!
I have had some contact with a Mary Cooper who may have some ideas of the Ashley Coopers and have communicated with RA Cooper.
In my files I have some address for RA Cooper, but they would be very old: Shetlocks Farm, Matching Tye, Harlow, Essex; Special Forces Club. From my own point of view, if you have a line of communication with living Coopers from Giddy Hall who might have any background information on the pen, I would be very interested to hear of it.
19 Sep 2006 01:18:28 -0400 Brett Ashmeade-Hawkins
I'm sorry that I have taken so long to reply to you, but Raymond MacIntosh asked me to wait until he came over to see me. He wanted to show me once again his two books on the Cooper family and more of his extensive notes on the Coopers of Jamaica.
One of the books that Raymond has is "Butterhill and Beyond: An Illustrated History of the Cooper Family" which was written by Richard Austin-Cooper. This is mostly about the Anglo-Irish Coopers, who were Landed Gentry in Ireland. He sent a copy of it to Raymond in 1999. I'm sure you are already familiar with this book. The other book that Raymond has on the Coopers is titled "A Cooper Family from North East Angus, Scotland" and this book has quite a bit of information on the Coopers of Giddy Hall, Jamaica. Raymond was wondering if you had already read this book, though I'm sure that you must have.
James Edward Burlton, who was an English Merchant in Black River during the Early 19th Century, owned both Ashton and Mount Charles. He married Charlotte Tomlinson, one of three beautiful sisters known as "The Three Graces". Their only son, Edward James Burlton, was their pride and joy. He was sent to boarding school in England, but on the voyage home to Jamaica in 1840 he caught Yellow Fever and died at the tender age of 17. He was buried at sea and the ship arrived in Black River with its flag flying at half-mast. James Edward Burlton never recovered from the loss. His wife, Charlotte, had already died in 1834, and so he was left distraught and alone.
In 1829 Charlotte's sister, Ana Katherine Tomlinson, had married Col. John Earle, who owned Mount Olivet coffee plantation near Malvern, in the Santa Cruz mountains of St. Elizabeth. Their son, John William Earle (1837-1912), became James Edward Burlton's favourite nephew and he later made him his heir. When James Edward Burlton died in 1853, he left Ashton to John William Earle. (Mount Charles had already been sold in 1846 to William Spence).
In 1847 Mrs. Ana Katherine Earle, the widow of Col. John Earle, married Dr. Andrew Wright Maitland, M.D. (1809-1856) of Mount Charles and Giddy Hall. She died in 1886 and is buried at Mount Charles. Two of her sons from her first marriage, Edward Muirhead Earle and Charles J. Earle, are also buried at Mount Charles.
Having inherited Ashton in 1853, John William Earle later moved from Mount Olivet Plantation to take up residence at Ashton Great House. He probably also wanted to be closer to his mother, who was living at Mount Charles with his younger brothers. He brought with him some of the fine mahogany furniture from Mount Olivet Great House, including a massive hand-carved Jamaican four-poster bed that was made on the plantation in 1829 as a wedding present. This four-poster bed, as well as some of the other Jamaican antique furniture from Mount Olivet and Ashton, is still in my possession and is now in our house in Miami.
John William Earle married Mary Elmina Calder, the daughter of John Calder of Stanmore Hill Plantation, near Malvern. She was descended, on her Mother's side, from the famous Vassall family of Jamaica, which produced Elizabeth Vassal, Lady Holland. I have a manuscript history and genealogy of the Vassal family, listing all the descendants, if you need any of the relevant dates. John William Earle (1837-1912) left Ashton to his eldest son, Charles Edward Earle (1869-1954). His youngest son, John Calder Earle (1881-1957), bought Aberdeen Estate, near Accompong, in St. Elizabeth, which he ran as a banana plantation. He was married in 1929 to Stella Mia Pulford (1893-1970), an English girl who had come out to Jamaica to visit a friend. She was born at a hill-station in India, the daughter of Col. Russell Richard Pulford, C.I.E., R.E., of the India Army, and her brother was Air-Marshal Conway W.H. Pulford of the R.A.F. He was captured by the Japanese during the Second World War, following the fall of Singapore, and was beheaded by a Japanese officer in one of the prisoner-of-war camps. Stella was a talented linguist and spoke 14 languages. During the Second World War the British Governor of Jamaica, Sir Arthur Richards, appointed her Official Translator to the German and Italian prisoners-of-war interned at Mona. Sir Arthur had been a friend of her Father during the British Raj in India.
According to my Godfather, John Calder Earle bought Mitcham Estate after the end of the Second World War and made it into one of the finest Dairy Farms in Jamaica. Perhaps he only leased it from the Sherman family. The Earles never lived at Mitchum. They lived at Aberdeen Great House, which must have been at least 20 miles away. I know that there was some problem regarding Mitcham which led to John Calder Earle giving it up shortly before he died, but I don't remember what it was now.
I am not in touch with any of the remaining descendants of the Coopers of Giddy Hall, but I believe that Raymond MacIntosh is. He is also in touch with at least one descendant of the Sherman family of Mitcham, who still lives on an estate near Black River in St. Elizabeth. Raymond just faxed me his contact information this afternoon. I can email it to you if you like.
On an entirely different note, I do have something which you might find rather interesting. Please find attached a pair of photos of two Late 18th and Early 19th Century Portrait Miniatures of John Pusey Wint, as a boy and later as a young man. As you know, John Pusey Wint was the step son of Andrew Wright (1752-1806) of Mitcham and Silver Grove. My notes show that John Pusey Wint was married about 1807 and that his wife's name was Eliza. This Portrait Miniature was one of a pair, presumably painted as a wedding memento. Unfortunately I do not have the matching one of his wife.
John Pusey Wint was born in Jamaica, but like most Planter's sons was sent home to England to be educated. He seems to have returned to Jamaica in 1815. He and his wife and children lived at Ryde, a coffee plantation near Newport, some 2,000 feet above sea level in the Carpenter's Mountains of southern Manchester Parish. The climate here would have been very cool and it must have been a healthy location, a welcome relief from the heat, mosquitoes and fevers of the plains far below. John Pusey Wint's son, John C. Wint (1816-1866), who eventually inherited the coffee plantation, is buried at Ryde and his tomb may still be seen there. In the 1960s the Ryde property was purchased by Ansell Hart, one of Jamaica's best-known Antiquarians, who thought it was the most perfect place in Jamaica to retire.
My family owns a house in Miami and I spend several months a year there, but I also own a cattle and citrus plantation in Belize and I live there for the rest of the year. I'm actually planning to sell up soon and buy a coffee plantation, 4,000 to 5,000 feet up in the mountains of Costa Rica. The climate is so much cooler there. I usually go down to Jamaica for a week or so every year. I was going down in November for the annual Antique Show in Kingston, but it looks like it is going to be cancelled. However, I shall be in Jamaica again in January for the Jamaican Antique Furniture Exhibition. (I have a large collection of Jamaican colonial antique furniture, silver, china, paintings, prints and maps). If you're in Jamaica at the same time let me know and perhaps we can meet up.
The Cooper family acquired Giddy Hall after the death of John Maitland in 1853 and the subsequent marriage of his widow, Augusta to John Myers Cooper I. The Coopers were in the area for a further 100 years.
The following extract was sent by Raymond MacIntosh 11/11/06.
Raymond's mother was the daughter of Barrington Charles Cooper of Sav la Mar. He was the son of George Evans & Alice Ionie (Clough) Cooper, but the connection with the Coopers of this extract has not been established.
Extract of a History of the Coopers of Edzell by John Craig Cooper.
This extract does not include the very early Coopers, and the original continues on for about 15 more pages after the following, but is not relevant to Maitlands & Giddy Hall.
Instead of a baptismal record for Robert, there is this understated entry:
The reason why no more children's names are insert[ed] here till the year 1716 was the Rebellion which began about this time, and ended in February 1716, by means of which the minister was obliged to retire from his own parish to Edinburgh.
With a hostile and erratic laird, Mr. Gray did not stay long, and neither did the session clerk. From May 10, 1718 to March 1721 the congregation was without these two leaders. Again no baptisms were recorded in that period.
In Laurencekirk where Robert and Elizabeth were married, the parish register has this entry:
"My entrie to this place was taken out and torn by the Highlanders in time of this late rebellion.... This is attested Feb. 1st, 1716
by R. Mortimer, Session Clerk."
Generally the highlands, more remote from the great changes taking place in the rest of the country, were in favour of the old status quo in religion, social system, language, and political structure.
Many highland clans were strongly Jacobite, favouring Catholic France over the ancient enemy England, which was now Protestant. They were gaelic speaking.
The struggle, often violent, took place in the buffer zone, including Edzell and Laurencekirk, between two races of people with different cultures, religions and languages.
Robert apparently became a merchant about 1739 after his daughter Elizabeth was born.32 He was only twenty-three, and probably took over the business from his father.
The occupation of merchant was a symptom of the new age. As the nobility travelled and learned about European social structures the clan system began to decline. With the increase of education, a middle class gradually arose consisting of small landholders, medical doctors, Church of Scotland clergy, school teachers, and merchants in the towns.
Historian T.C. Smout writes:
... the merchants of Scotland appear in many ways as potentially the most dynamic class in the community.... Both society and the economy would have been much more resistant to change in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries if it had not been for the bourgeois leavening which such men provided."33
Robert and Elizabeth's first child, Elizabeth, and her
husband John Mackain lived in Montrose where their daughter Elizabeth was born.34
"It is generally agreed now, that the name McKean, believed to be already spelt in more than four hundred different ways, means the son of John, i.e. Maclan." [Johnson is of Norse and Manx origin.]35
Robert and Elizabeth's second child, Robert, is believed to have died young.
David, their second son became a merchant in Jamaica. His story is in chapter three.
It seems to have been a tradition with this family to name the second son instead of the usual first son after the child's grandfather. It is consistent with the data for all the generations down to George the merchant in Slateford.
Little is known of James and Mary, the fourth and fifth children.
Helen the sixth child moved to Montrose when she married George Wilson. Their son James, born there in 1781, married Jean Mathew in 1804 and named their son George Coupar Wilson after his grandmother's [Helen Coupar's] brother George the Merchant.
This George, our direct ancestor, was Robert and Elizabeth's last child. See chapter four.
David and George, merchants in Montego Bay and at home in Slateford, worked together to build on their father's foundation larger enterprises and a greater influence for good in their communities than he could accomplish in his day.
David Cuper's second child apparently was John Coupar. He and his descendants are believed to be the ancestors of the Thomson family who went to Iowa ahead of George Cooper, a grandson of George the merchant. See chapter seventeen.
Isabel Coupar, David's lastborn, married John Low, the Edzell Kirk-officer, son of William Low. George was their celebrated first child.
DAVID CUPER'S FAMILY.
HUSBAND: David Cuper
Born:1693 Edzell Bap:9 Nov 1693 Edzell
Occ: Miller/merchant Father: John Cupar
1. Name: Robert Coupar, Born: circa 1716 Edzell.
Marr 15 Apr 1737 Laurencekirk, Elizabeth More
Died: after 1776. Occ: Merchant
2: Name: John Coupar, Born: circa 1717 Edzell.
Marr: 1 Jun 1739 Edzell. Jean Clark
3 Name; Isabel Coupar, Born: circa 1718 Edzell.
Marr: 8 Jun 1744 Edzell John Low
George, son of John & Isabel Low:
Most of George's biographers say that his father John was associated with the Low family long established in the Meikle Tullo farm in Edzell parish.36 He was identified in his marriage record, however, as being "in Kinell parish."
He died when his son was twelve,37 but the boy's mother managed to procure for him an education in Aberdeen's Marischal College, 1762-6, and the University of St. Andrews. Possibly his grandfather Robert Coupar, Merchant, financed his education.
He became minister of Birsay Church in the Orkneys, and is buried beneath the pulpit there.
His whole life in Orkney was devoted to the study of its natural history and antiquities. He specialised as a microscopist, constructing a water-microscope ... and commencing in 1769 a series of "Microscopical Observations," adorning his work with beautiful Indian-ink illustrations.
In 1770 he began an exhaustive History of the Orkneys, initiating his labour by a translation of Torfaeus's History. ...
Thomas Pennant gave him much encouragement. In 1774 at Pennant's expense, he made an extended tour of the southern Orkneys and the whole of the Shetland[s] ... furnishing Pennant with valuable data for the concluding volume of his Tour in Scotland.
In 1778 he visited the northern Orkneys, of which he wrote an account.... The holograph is now in the Library of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, [of which] in 1782 he was elected a corresponding member ....
Failure to get his writings published, though their value was repeatedly acknowledged, filled him with bitterness and despondency.... Ophthalmia (the result of his incessant microscopic work) attacked him in 1790, and in three years he was almost totally blind. He solaced himself with music, preached with a new fervency, and pursued his studies as far as he was able ... and when he died, the sorrow of his people was profound and genuine.
He marr. 27th Aug. 1775, Helen (died in child-bed 2nd Dec. 1776), only daugh. of James Tyrie, min. of Sandwick and Stromness....
The Fauna Orcadensis was published by William Elford Leach, M.D. (Edinburgh, 1813).... The MS of the Flora Orcadensis cannot be traced.38
Andrew Jervise wrote that George Low had two sisters:
married to respectable villagers of Edzell, of the names of Thomson and Lindsay. The latter was an ingenious self-taught mechanic, who to his trade of general merchant added that of watch and clock maker; and having had his shop robbed on an Edzell market night, the peculiarity of the tools with which he wrought led to the discovery of the thief, a notorious provincial high-wayman, who for a similar crime, was hanged on Balmashanner Hill, at Forfar, in 1785, and is said to have been the last person that suffered capital punishment by the decree of any Sheriff-depute in Scotland.39
DAVID CUPER'S CHILDREN & GRANDCHILDREN
David Coupar* (b. 1693)
Elizabeth Coupar (b. 1738)
Robert Coupar (b. 1739)
David Cooper (1741-1793)
James Coupar (b. 1742)
Mary Couper (b. 1744)
Helen Couper (b. 1747)
George Cooper* (1749-1831)
Jean Coupar (1740-dec.)
Anne Cooper (1752-dec.)
John Cooper (b. 1754)
+John Low (1717-1760)
George Low (1747-1759)
James Low (1750-dec.)
Anne Low (1752-dec.)
Margt. Low (1760-dec.)
George's two sisters were Anne, who married David Thomson in 1776 in Edzell, and Margaret.40
John and Isabel also had a son James baptized in 1750 in Edzell.
JOHN LOW AMD ISABEL COUPAR'S FAMILY
HUSBAND: John Low Born: 1717, Kinell Bap: 12 Jan 1717/8 Kinell
Marr: 8 Jun 1744 Edzell
Died: 1760 Edzell
Occ: Kirk officer
WIFE: Isabel Coupar
Born: circa 1718 Edzell
Father: David Cuper
1: George Low Born: 1747 Edzell, Bap: 29 Mar 1747 Edzell
Died: 13 Mar 1795, Orkney, Buried: 1795 Birsay
2: James Low Born: 1750 Edzell, Bap: 16 Jul 1750 Edzell
3: Anne Low Born: 1752 Edzell Bap: 28 Apr 1752 Edzell
Marr: 19 Oct 1776 Edzell: David Thomson
4: Margt. Low Born 1760 Edzell Bap 9 Sep 1760 Edzell
The early Edzell Coopers were entrepreneurs who played a significant role in the economic and cultural development of north-east Angus, and beyond.
We now enquire into the career of David the merchant in Jamaica.
JAMAICA NORTH SHORE COOPERS
David Cooper, Merchant.
David, the third child of Robert and Elizabeth chose Montego Bay in which to continue the family tradition of merchandizing. 41
The union with England in 1707 admitted Scotland to free-trade in Britain and its colonies, and Scots emigrated to Jamaica in large numbers. "In the mid-eighteenth century about a third of the European inhabitants were reckoned to be Scottish."45
In 1775 the population of Jamaica was 209,617:
12,737 white; 4,093 free coloured [mulattoes]; 192,787 slaves.46
David was seemingly the first among several Coopers to emigrate to Jamaica.
We may thank the American Revolution for opening a window on David's business. American gunboats were attacking British ships even before the land fighting began on April 19, 1775. David was forced to switch to American trading partners.
As international merchants in Jamaica, David and his partner were involved in the slave trade, acting on behalf of Messrs. Samuel and William Vernon, Merchants in Newport, Rhode Island.
A letter from David Cooper and Francis Mairez in Montego Bay to the Vernons included a statement of sales of the Othello's cargo of Negroes, totalling £2462.8.2 Jamaican. See Appendix 1.
The Vernons apparently owned the slaves, and Mairez and Cooper were their agents and auctioneers in Jamaica. Their commission was apparently £200., i.e. the difference between £2,462 and £2,262 mentioned in the letter in Appendix 2. They had two years to settle up the finances.
In 1774, a bill was passed by the Assembly in Jamaica restricting the slave trade, but it was disallowed by the crown.48
The long-standing shipping pattern required ships such as the Othello to take sugar, rum, hemp, coffee, and other products from Jamaica to Britain, thence to Africa with manufactured goods, and completing the triangle with a cargo of slaves to Jamaica.
Many British voices were raised against the trade in humans. The Abolition Society in Scotland was distributing books against slavery in 1791.49
The slave trade was by no means their main business 50 as the following letter from David and his partner shows:
To Messrs. Samuel and Willm. Vernon, Merchants, Newport, Rhode Island.
Montego Bay, Jamaica, Febr. 26, 1775
Your favour of the 9th of November last addressed to us came safe to hand. We are much obliged to Capt. Vernon for his recommendation, and if your Brig Venus should arrive it will give us great pleasure to render you every service in our power.
Come when she will 'twill be to a glutted market. The quantity of provisions here, particularly Fish, is very great indeed. We dread much for the low [price] as well as very slow sales that we fear we shall make.
Here are two Glasgow ships already with herrings, and every Cork vessel and some of the Londoners has abundance. Some few friends who from our request were pleased to wait a little, can stay no longer on our uncertainty, but have and are daily supplying themselves with Fish. You mention her to have been here by Christmas — had she been here even a month after it, we might have made tolerable sales ere now payable in May or June, but by her long stay we shall hardly be able to sell but at a low price & on credit of 9 or 12 months.
This you may be assured of gentlemen, we shall use our utmost endeavours to serve you.
As to a load for London, was she here even now that is impracticable. There is more vessels here already for that port than will we fear get full, and more are expected. If Capt. Knowles sells the brig, of which we see no probability as yet, his returns and what can be got in of yours and Capt. Vernon's old matters, shall be dispatched by Capt. Allen.
The pork as is, and about half of the candles are sold, but as to the beef in Mr. Cooper's store, 'tis so intolerably bad that none will buy it, even lowering the price won't do. We must try what a vendue [auction] will do. And as to the soap in Mairez's hand, 'tis equally as bad. We are really unhappy in having such goods left with us, it gains us no credit and we are sure cannot turn out to any advantage to you....
We will write more fully first opportunity and are with respect, Gentlemen, Yr. most Ob't. H'ble Servants.
Signatures half size.
Captain Knowles of the Brig. Royal Charlotte in a letter of 24 Jan. 1775 from Montego Bay to the Vernons, expressed the curious opinion that Mr. Mairez could not write, probably because David Cooper had written all the letters he had seen. As if to counteract that opinion, Mairez sent a letter to the Vernons ten weeks later explaining "Our remittance to you will be chiefly in rum and [sent] by Cap. Knowles.... I am, for Mr. David Cooper and Self, Gentlemen, Your Obt. h'ble S't. F. Mairez."
Captain Knowles expressed his anxiety to the Vernons about a British blockade.
"I wait with impatience to hear from you. We have a report here that New York is or will be shutt up soon. If so, every other port must expect the same fate unless you submit, from which may God defend you...."
Captain Knowles wrote the Vernons again on 27 April, 1775, just after the Revolution had officially begun:
"The cash I have gott in buying sugar which will not be much as there will be large Ballances to pay for the Rum. Messrs. Cooper and Mariez [sic] will be obliged to take all they can collect in Rum.
I was in hopes I would fix the day of our sailing but the uncertainty of the payments makes it impossible."
He then predicts that the uprising will be short-lived, and says: "[The] destruction [that] seems to hang over poor America grieves me to the soul.... The Scotts to a man are inveterate against you and their influence is powerfull...."
An undated scrap of a letter by the Vernons, says that Capt. Wallace is a petty tyrant, savage to people of Newport beyond belief, then adds: "you know we have three other vessels at Jama. that its probabil will fall into his hands.... We do not expect any favor as we have no connection with Scott's men, whose influence entirely governs him...."
The Vernons and Knowles favoured the Revolution. Most Jamaicans of British extraction presumably opposed it.
Captain Knowles had been trying to sell his vessel, the Charlotte, but he and his ship were captured by the British. The Vernons sent him a letter on 30 June 1775 through an intermediary in Boston:
" Your sudden unexpected departure from hence on ye 19th Instant by Capt. Wallace of his Majesty's Ship Rose taking possession of your Brig't. Royal Charlotte and her cargo, and ordering her to Boston, deprived us of the opportunity of even mentioning any gentleman's name that you might apply to at Boston in order to obtain payment for our goods.... Therefore we have taken the freedom to write to Henry Lloyd, Esq., to whom we enclose this, whom we have intreated to give you all possible assistance.... [Signed] S. & W. Vernon."
These letters reflect the difficulties of trade during the Revolution, of handling perishable goods in a hot climate, and of the shortage of hard currency, necessitating barter.
David Cooper, Citizen
David also had an active professional life, and career of service in Jamaica apart from merchandising.
One George Christie put this notice in the Cornwall Chronicle of February 1, 1782:
" As I intend leaving the island for the benefit of my health by the first opportunity this is to request ... those who stand indebted to me [to] be speedy in discharging the same to prevent the disagreeable necessity of suing. Apply to the subscriber at Miranda Hill or to David Cooper, Merchant, Montego Bay.
[signed] George Christie
N.B. To be rented, at Miranda Hill, a commodious Dwelling House, with out-office complete, also on a make-good lease, for two years certain, six Carpenter Negroes, and Sundry House Wenches. Apply as above."
David and his partner participated in a collection for the family of a Captain York whose vessel sank in a gale on the way from Montego Bay to North Carolina. Francis Mairez carried the more than £100 to the family at Green Island on the west coast of Jamaica between Lucea and Negril.48
David was the Deputy Receiver General in Montego Bay in 1776.49 His partner Francis at the same time was the Clerk of the Vestry, a position which he held at least until 1785.50 A Vestry was a body of persons entrusted with the temporal affairs of a congregation.
Bachelor David left £1,000 or more to each of his young brother George's six surviving children, the first of whom was named David.51 He stipulated that George hold the money in trust for the children.
George's brother-in-law William Lindsay and wife Ann Webster named a son David Cooper Lindsay, which may reflect another legacy from Jamaica.
The inscription on David's tomb-stone in the St. James Parish cemetery, Montego Bay, reads:
"Sacred to the Memory of David Cooper, Esq., who
Departed this Life at Montego Bay Jamaica, on the 11 July, 1793. He was born at
Slatefoord, Parish of Edzell and County of Angus in Scotland on the 26 March
He was in his 52nd year. The location of the grave LS not known as the tombstone is detached from the grave.
Historian Philip Wright wrote:
"Before the 19th century, commemoration by inscribed monuments in Jamaica was practically confined to persons of wealth and standing, and even among these it may have been the exception....
Until well into the 19th century the usual thing was to have the tombstone engraved in Britain and shipped out....
A tombstone in transit might be lost through shipwreck or capture at sea, and even when landed safely might easily go astray, if, as so often happened the deceased had no relative in Jamaica to look after it.53
David the merchant's nephew and namesake, son of George the merchant in Slateford, had followed his uncle to Montego Bay. He was probably the one who sent to Scotland for the inscribed stone. He may have sent more money than required since the slab is much larger than needed for the inscription.
For some reason David Senior's Inventory at death was not produced until ten years later, dated December 8, 1803. A David Bernard, the Administrator, reported that £700 was owing to the estate, but that originally the amount had been £3,500.
David's tombstone: seven inscribed lines at top.
He says further that William Parr Bernard and William Boyle McCulloch, both of the parish of St. James, merchants, had obtained David's goods and chattels. 53
David Cooper Jr., Mason.54
As his uncle David was the son of Robert, Merchant in Slateford, so this David was the eldest son of George, Merchant in Slateford.
David married E. [Eleanor?] McKean, a black or brown woman.55
His father advanced him £2,600 Sterling to get established. Of this he lent £1,000 to Elizabeth and Mary Leslie of St. James parish, giving a bond in 1806 to his father who had right to it by assignation. 56
Like many Europeans in the tropics, David died young at 41.57 The money advanced to David then was owed to his father's executors. But Mr. Dalmahoy, George's attorney in Jamaica, had also died, prompting George to acknowledge "my claim on my son's estate died a natural death and I was entirely dupe[d] out of a large sum...."58
This would be the entire amount of £2,600 Sterling, indeed a large sum in 1818.
DAVID COOPER & E. MCKEAN'S FAMILY
David Cooper, Born 1777 Edzell, Slateford
Bap 13 Mar 1777 Edzell, Slateford
Marr before 1806
Died 4 Jan 1818 Montego Bay Buried 5 Jan 1818 St. James Par.
Father George Cooper, Mother Jean Lindsay
WIFE E. McKean Born circa 1775 (?) Died before 1854
1: Thomas Cooper, Born: Jul 1805 Jamaica, St.Jas.
Bap: 19 Apr 1806 St. James par.
Marr: circa 1830(?) Jamaica Mercey [Cooper]
Died: 8 Mar 1857 St. James par. Buried: Mar 1857 St. James
2: Sarah C. Cooper Born circa 1810 (?) St. James
Marr circa 1834 (?) Jamaica Mr. Brown
Thomas Cooper, Watchmaker
Thomas also lived and worked in Montego Bay.
David and his wife had at least two children, Thomas and Sarah.
Thomas Cooper was of mixed race.59 He was 12 when his father died, and 51 at his own death.60
When Thomas was 31, he and his wife Mercey had a daughter Jane Linsey named after her great grand-mother in Edzell who was 89 then.61
This was a departure from the custom of naming the first daughter after her grandmother.
The next child and first son was given his grandfather's name, David.
The third was Eleanor. As the first daughter was named for an illustrious/generous ancestor, Jean Lindsay, the second was probably named after her grandmother, strengthening the assumption that the initial "E" indicating his mother in Thomas's Will stood for Eleanor. [See below]
In 1854 Thomas was a vestryman in St. James parish church, Montego Bay.62 Thomas's will dated 6th December the same year, says that his sister, Sarah C. Brown, had a property in the Paradise area of Montego Bay, but Thomas's will says that if she dies "without leaving any lawful child or children" it will devolve upon him, and if so he leaves it to his children "share and share alike with benefit of survivorship." His late mother had purchased it from John Manderson, Esq.
Thomas owned properties at 4 Church Street, Montego Bay, and on Queen Street, Jackson's Town. These and other personal property he left to his wife for her lifetime, and after that to his seven living daughters (un-named in the will), as joint tenants with the right of survivorship. But there was a caveat excluding:
any who depart from a
virtuous and moral course of life... [and] that any departure will at once disqualify
them by this instrument from any participation for ever of any provisions made
here for them....
I would also wish my sons to bear in mind that it is through inability that I don't make some provision for them. it will be well for them to bear in mind however, that with sobriety and industry they might acquire what I am not able to leave them, that is to say, wealth and respectability.
P.S. I give and bequeath unto my son John Christie all my tools and watch materials hoping that he will make good use of them.
And lastly for carrying into effect these my intentions I ... appoint my wife, Mercey, Guardian to my children, Mother and Executrix to this my last will.
He penned the will himself about two years before his death.
Grethel (Cooper) Ebanks63 of whom more in chapter ten, wrote to me as follows:
Many years ago while in Falmouth [east of Montego Bay on the coast] ... I met a Mrs. Getha Bodden, nee Cooper who claimed to be a relative. Her mother was Sarah Corinalde from Montego Bay.. . .
Was this the Sarah C. [Cooper] Brown mentioned in Thomas's will as his sister, using her maiden surname for her child?
In many ways Jamaica was a matriarchal society, an example of which is the frequency of the mother's surname being given to the children.
More examples of this practice will be seen in chapter ten, dealing with the next migration of the family to Jamaica.
THOMAS AND MERCEY'S FAMILY
Thomas Cooper, Born Jul 1805 Jamaica, St.Jas. Bap 19 Apr 1806.
Marr circa 1830 (?) Jamaica
Died 8 Mar 1857 St. James par. Buried Mar 1857 St. James par.
Father David Cooper Mother E. McKean
WIFE Mercey [Cooper] Born c1810 (?) Jamaica Died aft 1854 Jam.
1: Jane Linsey Cooper Born 5 Nov 1836 Montego Bay
Bap 30 Aug 1840 Montego Bay
2: David Cooper
Born 20 Jun 1838 St. James Par. Bap 30 Aug 1840 Montego Bay
3: Eleanor Cooper, Born 21 Jun 1840 St. James Par.
Bap 30 Aug 1840 St. James Par.
4: John Christie Cooper Born: Montego Bay Occ: Watchmaker
5: Five other daughters Cooper Born: Montego Bay
James was the second child of Robert Cooper and Jean McEwan. He was a teenager when the family moved from Mains of Gallery to Coul. He left home at about twenty years of age.
David Lindsay Cooper
David is described in the next chapter, as the first of this generation of the family to migrate to Jamaica.
Jean Lindsay Cooper
Jean married John Murray about 1836, and had a son William in 1837. She was twenty when she died in 1840 in Tannadice, possibly in childbirth.
John Myers Cooper I
John's colourful career in Jamaica is described in the next chapter. Like his brother David, he took his middle name in adulthood.
Nothing is known of Margaret except that she apparently lived into her teens at least, as she is not mentioned on the tombstone.
Mary Ann Cooper
Mary Ann married James Clark of the dark Thread family of Paisley. She had no children but took a great interest in those of her brother George in Iowa, and other relatives.
She was fond of giving books as presents. One was inscribed "Isabella McEwan, from her affectionate niece, M.A. Clark, July 1856." Isabella was George Cooper's aunt who had gone to Iowa to help care for the children. Mary Ann was 33 at the time, and continued the practice of giving books into her old age.
A book titled "Rest from Care and Sorrow" by Alex'r. Raleigh was inscribed: "To George Cooper from his affectionate sister Mary Ann Clark, 6 High Windsor Terrace, Glasgow, 9th Dec. 1884." The address was included on inscriptions until 1890, mostly in books to her niece Agnes Cooper in Lansing.
In 1887 she sent brother George a large-print bible, which he read every day. It was inscribed "To George Cooper, from his affectionate sister, M.A.Clark, March 1887." The last surviving gift book was sent at Christmas 1909 to Agnes, "A Slave of the Saracen", by Gertrude Hollis.
She corresponded with Mrs. Frank H. Bakewell in Ambrose, North Dakota, who was Jennie May Thompson, daughter of Richard Thompson and Mary Ann Cooper. Her correspondence seems to have ended about the time of the last book.
From 1907 to 1912 her servant Margaret Robertson continued to send post cards to the Bakewells, and probably to others of the family.
Mary Ann had her will registered on 30 December 1892, and wrote a codicil to it the same day. The following excerpts offer a window on her life:
[First] for payment of all my . . . debts, sickbed and funeral charges..,.
[Second] to my faithful servant ... Margaret Robertson, my gray parrot, and if in my service at my death, fifty pounds, [changed to £100 in the codicil] but if not ... thirty pounds [codicil £60]: to Mary Kerr if in my service at ... my death, twenty-five pounds, [codicil £50] but if not ... ten pounds [codicil £25]; also all my body clothes except my seal skin jacket shall be divided equally between them ...if ... both in my service at my decease, and if only one ... such one whole....
[Third] ... the following specific bequests;
 To my sister Diana Cooper my large photograph book with family photographs in it, also all my photographs in cases and small frames on the drawing room tables.,..
 To my niece, Mary Ann Cooper or Thomson, daughter of my brother George Cooper, my gold watch and chain and gold pencil case and locket, and my sealskin jacket....
 To my nieces Jane and Agnes Cooper, daughters of my said brother, my cameo brooch and my gold brooch, the elder getting the choice....
 To my said three nieces ... all my trinkets and articles of jewellery ... except the diamond brooch, bracelet and ring which shall be sold and the price form part of my estate....
 To Mrs. Joan Mollison or Cooper residing at Giddy Hall in ... Jamaica, my niece in law, my pearl brooch and my father's snuffbox, the pearl brooch having been a gift from my brother John to my late sister Margaret, I wish it to go back to his son's wife,...
 Having sometime after my husband's death given up of my own free will to his relatives all silver plate, crystal, and ornaments that came from Crossbill, I have nothing of that description to bequeath to any of my husband's relatives, but in token of many kindnesses received from him I bequeath to my husband's nephew James Clark Bunten, the photographs on porcelain of my late husband and myself which are framed and hang in the dining room....
 To Queen Margaret College, Glasgow, provided ... [they] undertake ... [to] hang them in a suitable apartment, the eleven sewed pictures at present in my dining room, and failing [which] ... the said pictures shall fall into residue.
 To the Reverend Charles R. Salmond, Morningside Free Church, Edinburgh, the engravings in the drawing room of Sir Noel Paton's pictures [revoked in the codicil, because "my estate will be much less than I expected or intended it to be"] ... also large framed photographs of myself, Hiss Fletcher and Doctor Miller and two of the Duchess of Gordon, also all my photograph books except those specially bequeathed, and glass and paper views and stereoscope, also all curiosities in the cabinet in the drawing room, and also the curiosities Miss Fletcher brought from the east including pistol, bows and arrows, and boomerang ... and small table with Irish views on it, and also all my right in the work, or copyright thereof, entitled "Miss Fletcher's Life" ... as a token of my appreciation of his cooperation and valuable aid in the production of the said work and otherwise, but all unsold copies of the work shall form part of the residue of my estate,
 To Jane Grierson, presently residing in Jaffa, Miss Fletcher's two watches and all [her] trinkets ... also Miss Fletcher's bible and the large likeness of the Duchess Gordon in the drawing room, and Miss Fletcher's photographic Album and the cartes in it, also [her] signet ring.
 To Polly Hilne, Croydon, near London, engraving of Saviour and Child, and to Margaret Hilne, Broughty Ferry, engraving of The Soldier's Return by Sir Noel Paton.
[11l To Janie Colville, residing at twenty Chalmers Street, Edinburgh, my second cousin, my mourning ring.
 To Hrs. Cornelia Pattison or Collins, daughter of Hrs. Godfrey Pattison, my black lace shawl.
 To John Robertson Johnston, son of the said David Johnston [a trustee] the small cannon made from part of the rock of Gibraltar.
[141 To the said David Johnston, Allison's History of Europe, or any other book of mine he may prefer to select, and
 to each of my trustees ... one stag's head and one roe's head to be selected by them from those belonging to me, and also to make payment to them of the sum of ten pounds each...,
And in the last place, as my husband left my sister [Catherine Diana in Jamaica one hundred pounds a year after my death, and she is thus and otherwise well provided for, I direct my trustees to ... convey the whole residue ... of my ... estate to ...my brother the said George Cooper, and should he predecease me [which he did], to ... my unmarried nieces ... Jane Cooper and Agnes Cooper equally between them....
And I declare that the whole provisions ... in favour of ... females shall be exclusive of the jus mariti and right of administration of any husbands ... and not affectable by such husbands' debts.
The document then authorizes her trustees to sell any part of her estate and invest the trust funds in heritable property, government funds or debenture stock of any Railway Company or limited company or public trust in Great Britain.
On 2nd November, 1893, a year after her will and codicil were registered, her brother George and sister Catherine Diana petitioned David Johnston, Writer in Glasgow, one of her trustees, to be Curator bonis for Mary Ann [a guardian or trustee of the goods, property, or person of a minor or incompetent person.]
She had lived for much of her adult life at "No. 6 Windsor Terrace [West], Kelvinside, Glasgow, afterwards at Ivy Lodge, Crieff, thereafter at Braedine, Lochwinnoch, [Renfrewshire], and towards the end at Donnachaidh, Kirn, Argyllshire."
Mary Ann died 19 April 1913 at Donnachaidh, near her ninetieth birthday.
Since her brother George and sister Catherine Diana had predeceased her by a decade, many of her bequests were never delivered. She probably gave them to some of the living beneficiaries.
David Johnston managed her estate for ten years.
In the end it consisted of £4,350.9.1, made up of annuities, furniture, jewellery. Railway Stock, bonds and bank deposits.
David Johnston's Petition for Discharge further states:
The whole next-of-kin of the said Mrs. Mary Ann Cooper or Clark, so far as known to the pititioner, are:
(1) the children of ... George Cooper ... viz., Stewart Cooper, Douglas Cooper, Edward Cooper, and Miss Agnes Cooper, all of Lansing ... Iowa, U.S.A., and Mrs. Mary Ann Cooper or Thomson wife of and residing with Richard Thomson at Lansing ...
(2) John Cooper of Giddy Hall, Giddy Hall Post Office, Jamaica, and William Cooper, of The Farm, Giddy Hall Post Office, Jamaica, both sons of John Cooper, another brother of Mrs. Clark who predeceased her.
David Johnston obviously did not know about George's other son, John, in Brechin, Scotland
Mary Ann's death certificate says that she was the widow of James Clark, Farmer.
Christian Foote Cooper,
Genealogists look with suspicion on non-family names suddenly introduced, and try to find the source.
The Rev. James Foote, D.D., was "presented", or nominated to the parish of Logic Pert by King George III on 7 July 1809 and was ordained the 21st of December the same year. 12
One of his earliest baptisms was of George Cooper on 1 March 1810, Robert and Jean's firstborn. After serving the parish for sixteen years. Dr. Foote was called to North Church, Aberdeen. The official date of his transfer was three days after Christian Foote Cooper was baptized, so it may have been his last baptism.
Christian was the last child of the family born at Logie Pert. To give a child a middle name after the minister was quite common, and his imminent departure no doubt inspired the naming of their daughter.
Robert and Jean must have known Dr. Foote's sister, Christian, born in Fettercairn. The Foote's parents were the Rev. Robert Foote, minister in Fettercairn, and his wife Jane Smith.
Brothers of James and Christian were the Rev. Alexr. Leith-Ross Foote, D.D., of Brechin, and Archibald Foote, merchant in Montrose.13
Christian Foote Cooper died near her ninth birthday.
The next chapter deals with Robert Cooper and Jean McEwan's children who went to Jamaica. David, John, and Catherine Diana settled on or near Jamaica's south shore.
DESCENDANTS OF ROBERT AND JEAN IN JAMAICA
David Lindsay Cooper-226
David Lindsay Cooper
b 1814 in Logic Pert, Mains of Gallery, D. 1844.
Number of children: 1
David John Cooper
b Jan 11, 1838 in Black River, St.Elizabeth par, Jamaica
Number of children: 3
d. 1867 in St.Elizabeth par
Catherine Diana Cooper
As in the previous century, a David Cooper followed his uncle David to Jamaica. David Lindsay Cooper, third son of Robert Cooper and Jean McEwan, went to Black River, a seaport on Jamaica's south shore in the parish of St. Elizabeth.
[See map page 27.]
In his short time in Jamaica he was a community leader: Deputy Judge advocate in St. Elizabeth parish in 1837 227 an Agent in Black River in 1839228 Clerk of Vestry in St Elizabeth parish from 1841 to 1843, Secretary of the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge in 1843, and the same year Secretary-Treasurer of the St. Elizabeth Agricultural Society.
The two last-mentioned positions he held until his death the following year, 1844, at the age of thirty.
In his spare time he Played the flute.
The inventory of David's assets was entered 25 July, 1844 by John Myers Cooper Sr. his brother, and is as follows:
Wearing apparel £25-
A box of silver plate 55
Gold Batch and chain 20
An eight-keyed flute 8
Sundry plated ware 14
Dinner/b'kfast service & glass 18
A mahogany wardrobe 10
Dressing case 6
Saddle and bridle 6-8
Set of dish covers 1-10
2 portmanteaus 1-10
Bed and house linen 10-
One yr. salary Clerk of Vestry £ 62-10
less £19- advanced. 43-10
This sum supposed to be due by
K.M. Anderson, Kingston. 12-
One year's salary as Clerk to Munro & Dickinson's charity (not yet realized) 30-
David John Cooper235
In the previous chapter we saw that this David at the age of thirteen years was attending school in Scotland, living with his grandfather Robert Cooper, uncle George, and aunt Catherine. He had been six when his father died in Jamaica, and probably went to Scotland as soon as he was old enough to travel abroad.
One can only wonder at the arrangements for the boy to cross the Atlantic in a sailing vessel, and the length of time to negotiate all the details by mail that also travelled by sea.
After his schooling he returned to Black River in Jamaica. There he had three children: Annie, Lindsay, and Catherine Diana. He lived an even shorter life than his father, dying before his thirtieth birthday, in 1867.
Young David was a horseman, and among his belongings were "1 Brown horse, 1 bay horse, 2 fillies unbroke, 1 grey horse, 1 2-year-old colt" as well as one buggy with double set of harness, and one gentleman's saddle. Some of his travel was on horseback as he had a portmanteau, which at the time meant a leather travelling bag designed for use on horseback.
He also engaged in a small-scale cattle operation, which at his death consisted of three heifers, four steers, five cows and three bull calves.
His father dying so young may have persuaded him to insure his own life for £500. with the Scottish Amicable Life Insurance Company. [Policy #18206] It's value in his list of assets, though, was reckoned as only £200.
The total value of his moveable estate was £381-12-1 1/2-.
Coopers were in Black River within living memory — in the 1930s and earlier. J.A. Cooper, a tailor had two tall sons, Laurence and Douglas; Laurence was a tailor like his father and Douglas a district constable at Fyffe's Pen.
Both tailors worked in Black River which was close to their home. The father J.A. used to make clothes for Arthur Cooper in Giddy Hall and is reported to have been a first-class tailor. Both father and son Laurence have died.
The dates allow for the possibility that "J.A." Cooper was the son of Lindsay Cooper whose father was David John Cooper [above].
John Cooper Sr. was three years younger than his
brother David Lindsay Cooper, and the fifth child of Robert Cooper and Jean
He adopted the middle name Myers, and gave it also to his son John, probably after his uncle John Myers of Montrose, Scotland.
He grew up in a farming family and emigrated to St. Elizabeth parish, Jamaica, before 1844.
It was customary for Scots to follow relatives to the new world. John Sr. followed his brother David to Black River. The road from Black River to Mount Charles and Giddy Hall about eight miles inland had been rebuilt in 1823, facilitating settlement in the area. See Appendix three.
John settled at Giddy Hall to establish his first farms.
He married Mary Stevens, the mother of his two sons John and William.
His cattle-raising was on a large scale, requiring a number of grazing pens [ranches]. He moved the cattle from field to field to allow pasture-land to recover.
Agriculture at this time was in a general decline in St. Elizabeth parish, but according to a report to Parliament in London, "in this parish, particularly where there are extensive grazing pens, these necessarily participate in the fortunes of the sugar estates."
The same report notes "at one church alone in this parish the baptisms for last year were ... legitimate 104, illegitimate 115."
DESCENDANTS OF JOHM MYERS COOPER I
John Myers Cooper I (1817-1876)
M (1): Mary Stevens
1/1. John Myers Cooper II (1850-1925)
+Joan Alexander Molison (1850-1945)
John Mollison [Jack] Cooper
Catherine Elizabeth [Kitty] Cooper
:. Mary Helen [May] Cooper
:. . Ainsley Cooper
:. Douglas George Cooper
:. Christine Cooper
;. +Ferdie Johnson
:. Roslyn Cooper
:. +Mr. Garcia
:. . "Massa" Cooper
:. . Rosalie Cooper
:. . +Mr. Jacobs
:. Charles Cooper
1/2. William Steven Cooper (1855-1920)
:. Arthur Thomas Cooper (1883-1945)
:. William John [Bill] Cooper
:. Frances Rosetta [Etta] Cooper
:. +Douglas Tomlinson
:. Florence Louise Cooper
:. +Howard Deleon
:. . Howard Deleon Jr.
:. Ada Elizabeth Cooper
:. +George Ogilvie
:. . Guy Ogilvie
:. . Gladys Ogilvie
:. . Thelma Ogilvie
:. . Ruby Ogilvie
;. . Kathleen Ogilvie
By Daniel & Jasper Ogilvie
George Robertson Ogilvie
his wife Catherine Campbell both died at Upper Harbour Street, Falmouth, Trelawny, Jamaica in 1859 leaving two children, George Augustus and James Leopold Robertson Ogilvie.
1/1. George Augustus Ogilvie, born 27th May 1856,
1881 married Hannah Elizabeth
Arena DeLisser, the daughter of George Phillips DeLisser, a marine pilot of Falmouth and his wife Ann Fergus (also known as Nancy) in Falmouth Parish Church (Anglican). They begat the following children, all born in Falmouth, Trelawny.
i) George Phillip Bernard Ogilvie, born 17th February 1882.
ii) Daniel Leopold James Ogilvie,
born 9th September 1883
iii) Catherine Arena Ogilvie, born 27 March 1885
iv) Walwyn Meridth Ogilvie, died in infancy.
v) Alfred Augustus Ogilvie, died in infancy
vi) Emiline Constance Ogilvie, died in infancy.
vii) Patrick Ogilvie, died in infancy.
viii) Edward Alexander Ogilvie, born 24th February 1891
ix) Constance Rebecca Ogilvie, born 1st November 1892
x) Robert Darnly Ogilvie, born 26th November 1895
George Augustus Ogilvie died at sea and was buried at
Savanna-la- mar in the parish of Westmoreland, Jamaica, on 18th March 1900. His
wife Hannah Elizabeth Arena DeLisser Ogilvie died at Falmouth on 4th January
1925, aged 70 years.
1/2. James Leopold Robertson Ogilvie, born 1857, died April 1883,
unmarried and without known issue.
2/1. George Phillip Bernard Ogilvie married Ada Elizabeth Cooper at Giddy Hall in the parish of St. Elizabeth in the year 1909. George Phillip Bernard Ogilvie died in Falmouth, 24th, January, 1970, predeceased by his wife Ada Elizabeth Cooper.
They begat the following children, all born in Falmouth Trelawny:
3/1. Guy Augustus Ogilvie, born 4th March 1910
3/2. Gladys Una Ogilvie, born 3rd June 1912
3/3. Thelma Louise Ogilvie, born 17th February 1913
3/4. Ruby Mignonette Ogilvie, born 17th July 1914
3/5. Carmen Ogilvie, born about 1915, died at infancy.
3/6. Kathleen Elaine Ogilvie, born 9th January 1916
3/7. Hugh George Ogilvie, born 4th December 1919
3/8. Kenneth McDonald Ogilvie, born 14th October 1921
;. . Hugh Ogilvie
:. . Kenneth Ogilvie
:. Rosabelle [Rose] Cooper
:. +Charles Augustus King
:. . Mervyi "Toots" King (1915- )
:. . Phyllis Icilda King (1917- )
:. . +John Segree (1916-1984)
;. . . Heather Marie Segree
:. . Gloria King (1919- )
:. . +Walter Tucker
:. . Jeffery George King (b. 1921)
:. . +Venita Gauntlett
:. . Baldwin King (1926- )
:. . +Vi Whitely
:+Theresa Warren (?-1919)
:. Arnold Murillo Cooper (1897- )
Grethel Imogene Cooper (1905- )
+Julius Ebanks ^
M (2): Augusta Maitland (1825-1858)
M (3): Miss Campbell
:Mary Elizabeth Cooper
Catherine [Kate] Cooper
Ella Robertha [Minnie] Cooper
Charles [Charley] Cooper
M (4): +Cecelia Lettman
Thomas Lettman Cooper (b. 1860)
. Edith Matildah Cooper (1885-dec.)
+James Andrew Dennis
. Percival Croswell Cooper (1908- )
. . +Alice Rebertha Ebanks (?-1940)
Rupert Wilson Cooper (1936-dec.)
Carmen lona Lloyd Cooper (1937-dec.)
+Mavis Merle Bodden
Lancelot George Cooper (1942- )
Joyce May [Cooper] White (1946- )
Lucien Patrick Everton Cooper (1948- )
Joy Everade [Cooper] Khan (1949- )
Pamela Angela Cooper (1951- )
Doreen Evadne Cooper [marr. Hedmann] (1952-
Percival Croswell Cooper Jr. (1954- )
Doris Maud Green Cooper (1920- )
+Edwin Ethelbert Tennant (?-1926)
Phyllis Viola Tennant (1923- )
+Van Roy McNish
Herbie Wellesley Tennant (1926-dec.)
Agatha Cooper (1890-dec.)
Harry Cooper (1893-dec.)
Thomas Cooper Jr. (1896-dec.)
Adrian Cooper (1898-dec.)
Georgiana Cooper (1901-dec.)
Vida Cooper (1903-dec.)
Enoch Myers Cooper (1906-1984)
Viola Imogene Cooper
Eric Cooper (1908-dec.)
Minna Cooper (1911-dec.)
Clara Cooper (1913-dec.)
Eliza Rebecca Cooper (b. 1863)
M (5): Miss Gayle.
Harold [Brownie] Cooper
John Cooper IV
. Mable McDonald
M (6): Miss Scott.
1/10. Ethelda [Minnie] Cooper
JOHM MYERS COOPER I & MARY STEVENS' FAMILY
John Myers Cooper I
Born: 1817 Gallery Bap: 6 Nov 1817 Logic Pert
Marr: circa 1849 Place ?
Marr.2: 17 Oct 1855 St. Eliz. Jam.
Died: 6 Dec 1876 Giddy Hall
Buried: Dec 1876 Giddy Hall.
Prob: 22 Mar 1879 Inventory
Father: Robert Cooper Mother: Jean McEwan
1855: Augusta Maitland
WIFE Mary Stevens
Born circa 1819 Died circa 1855 Jamaica
1: John Myers Cooper II Born: 1850
Marr: 3 Jan 1884 Brechin Joan Alexander Molison
Died: 1925 Giddy Hall Occ: Cattleman
2: William Steven Cooper Born: 1855 Giddy Hall.
Marr: circa 1880 (?) Jamaica Rebeccah Watson
Died: 20 May 1920 The Farm G.H.
Buried: May 1920 The Farm G.H.
Census: 3 Apr 1871 Brechin.
Occ: Stockman & Planter
In that parish, cholera and small pox "on some estates carried off half the labourers." Refusing vaccination and not seeing any connection between sanitary practice and health, they did not call in medical aid. A kind of fatalism prevailed. "Him's time come" was the consolation for the survivors.
John Myers Cooper Senior died 6 Dec. 1876 in his 60th year. Family tradition says that John Jr. was at University in Scotland, and returned upon the news. He is said to have met his future wife Joan Molison at university. He and his brother William were their father's executors.
They drew up an inventory of his moveable assets of 22 March 1879. What follows is based on that inventory.
On the Fellowship Pen [ranch], Middlesex Pen, [reached by a road from Shaw's, see below] and the Giddy Hall Pen there were a total of 651 "horned stock," and thirty horses. Over half these animals were at the Giddy Hall home place.
Also at Giddy Hall were thirty-three sheep, four carriages, buggies, Wains, wagons, drays, carts etc.
The contents of Shaw's House and Shaw's Store [between Middle Quarters and Lacovia] was valued at £822-7-2.
The debts owing him, bills receivable, amount due on mortgages, debentures, and cash in bank came to £9,713-3-6.
Among the household effects was a billiard table.
Personalty [i.e. moveable personal property] in addition to that listed, was valued at £12,000.
The total of his moveable assets was £27,606-3-8, in addition to the real estate, store, houses and other buildings. (£2.1M 2006)
This fortune was created in three decades of the mid 19th century, without the support of the developed world's infrastructure.
Although no will is available, his grandson Arnold Cooper says that John Myers Cooper Sr. left the Fellowship Pen to his son William, and the Giddy Hall Pen to John Jr. A river flowed through the Middlesex Pen and he left to each the land on one side of the river. In years of drought each could move his cattle to his own land with water.
His epitaph says:—
"In Memory of John Myers Cooper Esq. J.P. who died 6th December 1876, Proprietor of Giddy Hall &c. &c.
For thirty years and upwards he took prominent part in the public affairs of the parish of St. Elizabeth. He was a man of large sympathies, of great generosity and liberality, and his charities though unostentatious were extensive and wisely distributed. His departure is mourned by many.
He contemplated the erection of a church and schoolroom on "The Farm" pen, but dying soon after the work was commenced, it was left to his successors to carry out.
Erected by his affectionate sons and sister."
The sister was Catherine Diana Cooper, living in Edzell Lodge northwest of Kingston.
A one-room school/church was built by the Coopers on part of the Pen, just to the left of the present Giddy Hall Post Office when facing it. It was a wooden building with nog walls [stones and mortar on frame].
The present church is across the road not far from the original site.
A surprise in the group of tombstones, is one which read: "Sacred to the Memory of Augusta Spence, beloved wife of John Myers Cooper, who died at Bloomsbury in the parish of Saint Elizabeth on the 13th January, 1858, aged 33.
This stone was erected at the request of her surviving husband, by whom the recollection of her many virtues will ever be cherished so long as memory holds a place.
Jamaica, Anno Domini 1859."
She was a widow living in St. Elizabeth parish when she
married John Myers Cooper Sr. by licence on 17 October 1855.
Spence was her maiden name, and Maitland her first husband's name. He was a medical doctor, and lived only two years and three months after the marriage. John had now been widowed twice.
Another epitaph in the group says "Sacred to the memory of Mrs. Ann Maitland who departed this life 23rd October 1833, aged 42 years."
She may have been Augusta's mother-in-law. Martha Banton, a neighbour, says that in the old Cooper house was a branding iron with the name Maitland on it.
John Myers Cooper II
When John Cooper Jr. was born, his father had been at Giddy Hall for at least five years.
Although sharing his father's work on the farms, and learning from him how to be a good cattleman and farmer, a hip-roofed billiard house adjacent to the main house suggests there was also time for relaxation.
When his father died in 1876, John spent a few years mastering the ranching business. Then he went back to Scotland to marry Joan Alexander Molison.
She had been born in New Monkland parish at Stanley, near Airdrie, Lanarkshire. Her father was John Mollison, a writer [solicitor], and her mother was Elizbeth Black.
Some time before Joan was thirty, she moved to Brechin to live with her brother, Alexander Lawrence, M.B. Medical Practitioner [licentiate], whose mother must have remarried a man of that surname. Alexander and his family and Joan Alexander Mollison lived at 11 Bearehill Villa on Castle Street, Brechin.
The names suggest that their maternal grandmother's maiden name was Alexander.
John and Joan were married with the rites of the Church of Scotland. She was thirty-two, and he thirty-four and living at Chanonry House [near Brechin Cathedral]. The couple soon sailed for Jamaica.
Joan Alexander Molison, is said to have been a brilliant student and one of the first women to graduate from University in Scotland. By all accounts she was a woman of great character, and a devoted wife and mother.
In old age when she was partly blind and had broken her hip, the doctor said he had never seen anyone suffer so much and yet so silently and with such dignity as she did while her hip was healing.
A family tradition says that she was of royal descent, but few families do not seek to discover such ancestry at some point or other. Without proof it must be discounted. Yet, she was the kind of person to evoke such a notion.
Like his father, John Jr. was made a Justice of the Peace.
He added several pens to the operation during his lifetime, although Giddy Hall remained the largest at 1,268 acres.
All the Cooper properties were in the parish of St. Elizabeth.
Here is John Junior's will:
I John Cooper of Giddy
Hall ... leave to my sons John Molison Cooper and Douglas George Cooper, all my
books, mechanical tools, surveying and mathematical and philosophical
instruments to be divided by them. I leave to my beloved wife Joan Alexander
Cooper to her absolute and unmolested control my Properties Giddy Hall and
Mount Lebanon [between Giddy Hall and Hampstead] and two detached pieces of
land situated on Forrest Mountain on the Giddy Hall boundary ... and my
Properties of Dickinsons Middlesex and East Middlesex ... with the land there
known as Mount Unity adjoining them, with all the live and dead stock [dead stock=hardware]
on them severally to her absolute and unmolested use and control for her life
time, and thereafter I give Giddy Hall and Mount Lebanon, and the said two
pieces of land of Forrest Mountain together with all the live and dead stock
then therein to my son ... John Molison Cooper.
To my son ... Douglas George Cooper I give my properties Dickinsons Middlesex and East Middlesex and the said piece of land of Mount Unity ... with all the live and dead stock then thereon. Both these bequests being subject to that my two daughters Catherine Elizabeth Cooper and Mary Helen Cooper are to be supported and maintained from the ... revenues from Giddy Hall and Mount Lebanon at the rate of Fifty pounds per annum to each, and from the ... revenues of Dickensons Middlesex and East Middlesex and Mount Unity with the said stock, Thirty pounds to each.... Catherine ... and Mary ... shall have and enjoy domicile at Giddy Hall in the old House, so long as they are content to dwell there and conduct themselves as loving sisters each to their brothers, and they shall likewise be entitled to the privilege of rearing on the properties ... such stock bona fides owned and belonging to them and excepting goats, in such reasonable and limited number as their brothers John and Douglas shall determine and afford.
I appoint my ... wife ... and sons ...as my executors, and also to be, together with my daughters ... residuary Legaties of this my last will and Testament.... this third day of October ."
The four children were born at Giddy Hall after 1884: John Mollison, Catherine Elizabeth, Mary Helen, and Douglas George.
They received their early education from a governess at home.
All had red hair except Kitty whose hair was brown.
John Mollison Cooper, nicknamed Jack and Jock, attended Munro College. He may be described as a Gentleman, not having chosen nor prepared for any other occupation. Like Douglas he enjoyed playing the piano and organ, and singing.
Jock was tall and slim. He was captain of a cricket team in Giddy Hall, but according to one authority, it was not because he was a good cricketer but because he had money. Jock rode around on a motor cycle.
Catherine Elizabeth [Kitty] was educated in Scotland. She composed music, played several musical instruments well, sang, was a good carpenter, and even kept an apiary. She was also fond of animals, and renowned for the beauty of her trays of cakes and cookies.
Mary Helen [May], educated at home, was considered not as bright as the others, but in the kitchen she was handy at baking and making preserves. Though unmarried she had a son, Ainsley, who was not accepted by the family.
The Banton neighbours bought a piece of land from May. They found these four siblings to be "friendly and nice people."
Douglas George Cooper was educated at Munro College.
He served in the Great War [1914-1918]. As with so many others, the experience severely damaged his personality. Although he loved to play the piano and sing, he became addicted to alcohol, and went on periodic rampages. His sister Kitty was the only person who could calm him down when he was on a binge. On at least one occasion the local policeman had to bring in reinforcements from other communities to get him into jail.
A giant of a man - both sons were over six feet - he was a splendid physical specimen, and very handsome, but after the war he fell to pieces. He had had no part in creating the wealth he inherited, and didn't know how to handle it.
None of the four married, although their cousin Grethel Cooper their cousin says they were "very nice and friendly."
All had gone well at Giddy Hall until after the death of John Myers Cooper, Jr. when Douglas began to drink heavily again, and the Middlesex property slipped out of his hands.
Where Jock's preferred mode of travel was a motorcycle, Douglas chose a buggy. With the advent of automobiles, though, Douglas modernized. Douglas became fat and developed cancer in the face, from which he wasted away.
Being red headed, with the usual sensitive skin, the cancer probably resulted from over-exposure to the tropical sun.
Jack was a pipe smoker, but never drank. Although kind hearted, he had no knowledge of how to manage his properties. He ran them into debt and had to sell them piece by piece.
All properties were delivered to both sons free of debt, with ample money in the bank for private use.
John Myers Cooper II
Marr 3 Jan 1884 Brechin, Banns 1883 Church of S, Engaged 1883 Brechin.
Died 1925 Giddy Hall, Occ Cattleman
Father John Myers Cooper I, Mother Mary Stevens
WIFE Joan Alexander Molison
Born 20 Mar 1850 New Monkland
Bap 15 Apr 1850 New Monkland
Died Oct. 1945 Giddy Hall
Census 4 Apr 1881 Brechin
Father John Mollison, Mother Elizabeth Black
1: John Mollison [Jack] Cooper
Born after 1884 Giddy Hall, Occ Gentleman
2: Catherine Elizabeth Cooper
Born: circa 1886 Giddy Hall
3: Mary Helen [May] Cooper
Born: circa 1888 Giddy Hall
4: Douglas George Cooper
Born circa 1890 Giddy Hall, Occ Soldier-farmer
The crops and sales of cattle could have provided well for their needs.
The water supply at Middlesex was leased to the Holland Estates.
After Douglas lost his property, he went back to Giddy Hall. Kitty had died before his return, and Jack died after it,
Douglas sold most of the furniture, eventually stopped drinking, and opened the Billiard House to preachers from England, who formed a congregation there.
Their mother Joan survived all her family except May.
When Joan died, the house with the few acres left were bought by Ethelda [Cooper] Wright's son Harold.
John Sr. had children by various black women after his second wife died. [See DESCENDANTS OF JOHN MYERS COOPER I a few pages back, and see below.]
Son John never accepted his half brothers and sisters calling them "red-headed bastards." Douglas and Jack however were friendly towards all their grandfather's children, and so was William.
John Jr.'s wife Joan never met them which may have been her husband's doing.
After her husband's death Joan told her niece Grethel that she came to Jamaica to be nice to everybody. She was lonely, especially after her two sisters from Scotland could no longer visit her.
Joan apparently went blind in the 1930s. Her children probably died before 1938 because in that year a nurse. Miss May Mornan, rented the house and used it as a Nursing Home for a couple of years.
William Steven Cooper
William was born in 1854 or 1855. Since his father married Augusta Maitland on 17 October 1855, and Mary Stevens had born William such a short time before, Mary probably died in childbirth or soon after. In the interval John's sister Catherine Diana came to Giddy Hall to care for the children.
William married Rebecca Watson, a black woman, and raised a large family on The Farm Giddy Hall. His Will was dated on the day he died. His signature is clear, although the Will is in the hand of the attending physician. Dr. Curtis Daniel Johnston, who also signed as a witness and signed an affidavit attached to the Will.
William left his possessions to be divided equally between his children and his half sister Mary Elizabeth Cooper, all of whom were listed as the beneficiaries. His son Arthur and son-in-law Charles Augustus King, husband of Rosabelle, were named as executors.
WILLIAM S. COOPER & REBECCAH WATSON'S FAMILY
William Steven Cooper
Born: 1855 Giddy Hall.
Marr: circa 1880 (?) Jamaica
Died: 20 May 1920 The Farm, Giddy Hall
Buried: May 1920 The Farm, Giddy Hall
Census: 3 Apr 1871 Brechin."
Occ: Stockman & Planter
Father: John Myers Cooper I, Mother: Mary Stevens
Other w: Theresa Warren
WIFE; Rebeccah Watson
Born: circa 1858 Jamaica
1: Arthur Thomas Cooper
Born: Dec 1883 Giddy Hall. Occ: Farmer
2: William John [Bill] Cooper
Born: circa 1885 Giddy Hall.
Died: (deceased) New Jersey, U.S. Occ: Violinist
3: Frances Rosetta [Etta] Cooper
Born: circa 1887 Giddy Hall.
Marr: after 1920 Detroit, Mich. Douglas Tomlinson
Died: (deceased) Detroit, Mich.
4: Florence Louise Cooper
Born: circa 1888 Giddy Hall.
Marr: U.S.A. Howard Deleon
Died: (deceased) U.S.A. Occ: Reg.Nurse
5: Ada Elizabeth Cooper
Born: circa 1889 Giddy Hall.
Marr: Jamaica. George Ogilvie
6: Rosabelle [Rose] Cooper
Born: circa 1890 Giddy Hall.
Marr: circa 1914 Giddy Hall. Charles Augustus King
Died: circa 1986 Mandeville
William was a cattleman on a modest scale, and a planter.
He propagated and planted breadfruit, coconut, mango, pimento [a large tree unique to Jamaica], other fruit trees, and pineapples.
His tombstone is in a stone enclosure at The Farm together with those of others in the family.
The epitaph says:
Sacred to the Memory of William S. Cooper died 20th May, 1920, aged 69 years.
We miss him, 0 what words can tell
The loss of him we love so well.
While nature whispers "what a loss,"
Faith meekly cries "bear thou thy cross."
Arthur Thomas never married. Home, The Farm, and being volunteer choirmaster and organist in the White Hall Anglican church for forty-two years were important in his life. He was a very quiet man.
William John was married but had no children. He lived in New Jersey where he also did voluntary service in the church as a violinist. His nephews and nieces called him "Uncle Big."
Frances Rosetta [Etta] married Douglas Tomlinson and went to Detroit, Michigan. They both died there and are survived by many descendants, most of them in Detroit.
Florence Louise married Howard Deleon, an American. They had one child, Howard Jr. After they separated he pre-deceased her. He had worked for the United States Navy before his death in Puerto Rico.
He is survived by his son and grandchildren, now living in Florida.
Florence, a Registered Nurse, was Matron of the Black River Hospital before going to the United States. She returned to Jamaica for awhile, but died in Detroit about 1985.
Ada Elizabeth Cooper married George Ogilvie who became a merchant in Falmouth, Trelawny parish, Jamaica. They were together….
At July 2011, the Topsham family does not now seem to be connected to ours.
The Mugford connection has been researched by:
Paul Harding, Arizona, 12/2003[xiv]
Some work by AM at Exeter RO.
is somewhat speculative and requires more research.
A possibility - this is the closest John Carpenter listed on the IGI within a suitable date range:
John Carpenter C: 5/12/1769, Lympstone, Devon (IGI & PR)
Parents: Robert & Elizabeth Carpenter
Two marriages are possible, but that to Elizabeth Mugford is the most probable (date of birth and age are correct for her):
(a) Elizabeth Ledger, St Sidwell, Exeter, 3/3/1803 - PR checked
Both OTP, by banns, illiterate, he a private in the East Devon Militia.
(b) Elizabeth Mugford, Holy Trinity, Exeter, 26/6/1804 - PR Checked. He a mariner OTP, she of Lympstone, Devon, by licence
It would be logical to assume that Francis (2) Maitland would have met a mariner's family, although John was quoted to be a farmer when Harriet remarried in 1847. By then he would have long since retired from the sea (if indeed the job description was correct and not a copy of Halahan snr.). Lympstone & Topsham are adjacent parishes on the Exe estuary.
If the sequence below is correct, what was John C doing in Shillingford (only about 5 miles from Topsham)? Only the twins, Harriett & James were born in Shillingford, all the remaining supposed offspring being born at regular intervals in Topsham. Maybe John was at sea at the relevant time. It is noticeable that the other children were baptised at odd intervals, probably due to his absences.
See below for other issue of John and Elizabeth at Alphington, possibly the issue of option (a) above. Exminster and Kenn parishes were checked and no relevant Carpenters found (see below).
1841: John Carpenter, 72, Mariner, Shapter St, Topsham
This may well have been our John Carpenter. (Jno Carpenter 70, p20 Dist 4)
ELIZABETH MUGFORD - 1773
Born 1773 in Lympstone Devon,
Baptism: November 07, 1773, Lympstone Devon, Died 1831, age matches DoB.
Parents: Francis & Charity (Wheaton) Mugford.
Died: November 02, 1831 in Topsham.
Children of Elizabeth Mugford and John Carpenter are:
List from Harding, with additions of PR by A3M;
(A3M: refer 1/3 names and father a mariner in some)
1/1. John Carpenter, b. 1806, Topsham. (PR)
July 27, 1806, Topsham
1851 Census possibility, Kenn Town, Kenn, Devon (nr Topsham):
John (45, Ag Lab, Kenn), Mary (45, Chudleigh), Mary Ann Shapter (dau, 16, Kenn), Eliza (dau, 10, Kenn), Ann Carpenter (dau, 5, Kenn), John (son, 3, Kenn).
1/2. Edward Francis Carpenter, b. 1808, Topsham (PR).
1/3. Elizabeth Charity Mugford Carpenter, b. 1809, Topsham (PR).
married William Brinning August
22, 1830 in Topsham Devon, son of William Brinning and Sarah.
His Baptism: December 18, 1803, Kenton Devon
1851 Census, Lacemaker, Widow
1861 Census, Snows Cottage, Littleham, Exmouth, Devon:
Elizabeth Brinning (Hd, Wid, 57, Lace Maker, Littleham), Eliza (dau, 22, Lace Maker, Littleham.
1871 not found.
2/1. Elizabeth Ann Brinning, b. 1833, Topsham;
d. July 29, 1833, Topsham. Baptism: July 22, 1833, Topsham
2/2. Elizabeth Ann Brinning, b.
Bap 26/7/1835, Topsham
2/3. Eliza Brinning, b. 1839, Littleham Devon.
2/4. Charlotte Brinning, b. 1842, Littleham Devon.
2/5. William Brinning, b. 1845, Littleham Devon.
1/4. Edward Francis Carpenter, b. 1811, Topsham (PR).
1/5. John Carpenter, b. 1813, Topsham.
Baptism: December 19, 1813, Topsham (PR Shows: of Topsham, Mariner)
1/6. Henry William Carpenter, b. 1814, Topsham.
Baptism: March 13, 1814, Topsham (PR Shows: of Topsham, Mariner)
1/7. Susanna Carpenter, b. 1825, Topsham.
Baptism: July 17, 1825, Topsham
ROBERT CARPENTER - 1738?
Robert Carpenter C: 29 Sep 1738
Father: Edw Carpenter Woodbury, Devon, Mother: Eliz
Woodbury on East Bank of Exe Estuary, S of Exeter. Adjacent Parish to Lympstone.
(b) Probably too young and too far away.
Robert Carpenter C: 2 Jan 1743
Father: William Carpenter, Oakford, Devon, Mother: Ann Winsborrow.
Oakford abt 10 miles N of Tiverton.
Married at St Sidwell, Exeter, 25/2/1759,
Robert Carpenter Soldier OTP, Elizabeth Barlow OTP, by Banns, he illiterate, she signed.
IGI: only Ch: Elizabeth Barloe Crediton 23 May 1732, of Barloe & Mary.
Ch of Robert & Elizabeth Carpenter (IGI):
1/1. John Carpenter C: 5 Dec 1769 Lympstone, Devon, (PR)
1/2. Edward Carpenter ch 2/8/1772 (Robert only) (PR)
1/2. Mary Carpenter C: 22 Oct 1775 Lympstone, Devon, (PR)
1/4. Mary Carpenter, ch 28/2/1779 (Robert only) (PR)
FRANCIS MUGFORD - 1739
From email from Paul Harding.
Baptism: March 06, 1738/39, Lympstone Devon
Parents: Francis & Mariam (Skinner) Mugford.
Married: Charity Farrant, June 17, 1765 in Lympstone Devon.
Charity Farrant married 1st John Wheaton. William Chown (father of Mary) was a witness at John Wheaton's will.
The following may refer to our Francis Mugford. It appears that the voyage was undertaken about 1779.
From: Thomas Cole [xv]
Subject: [DEV] Capt Francis MUGFORD
Date: Sat, 20 Jan 2007
Writing in Paris, France in 1781, Benjamin Franklin accorded unmolested passage from England to Labrador for Capt. Francis MUGFORD, master of the Good Intent, appropriately named since Mugford was on a benevolent voyage to deliver much needed supplies to the Moravian missionaries.
.... the sloop Good Intent, burden about 75 tons, Capt. Francis Mugford, carrying in the present voyage about 5,000 bricks for building chimneys, with provisions and necessaries for the missionaries and their assistants and some ironmongery and tinware for the Indians; the crew consisting of the captain, mate, three men, and a boy, and the passengers, one man and three women; is the vessel employed in the above service for the present year.
.... And Whereas some Members of the said Brethren, Society for the furtherance of the Gospel among the Heathen, have purchased and fitted out a Sloop called the Good Intent, of which Francis Mugford is Commander, principally with a view to bring the Missionaries and their assistants the necessary Provisions, for their subsistence in that inhospitable Climate.
.... The Sloop, Good Intent, Capt. Francis Mugford burthen about 70 or 75 Tuns the Cargo Consists of some Bricks for building Chimnies about 5000 I believe. Provisions and Necessaries for the poor Missionaries and their assistants, some Ironmongery and Tinware for the use of the Indians and Missionaries. The Crew consists of the Capt. and mate, three men and one boy. There are to be three women Passengers and one Man Passenger. The Vessel goes from London to Labradore. No man but a true man, none but our Vessel shall make use of your kind favour.
From Place Names of Atlantic Canada (via Google, by William B. Hamilton, University of Toronto Press 1996):
Cape Mugford (Labrador) On the mainland, opposite Cod Island. This 671 metre high bluff was probably named after Captain Francis Mugford, who was in command of the "Jersey Packet", a ship which carried a group of Moravian missionaries to the coast of Labrador in 1770. (57N50, 61W43, several hundred miles north of Goose Bay). A very rugged part of the world!
See end of this paper for further extracts.
1/1. Francis Mugford, b. 1767, Lympstone Devon.
born 1767 in Lympstone Devon.
Baptism: October 09, 1791, Lympstone Devon (IGI & PR 4/10/1767)
1841 Census: Topsham, Shapter St:
Francis Mugford (70 (71 Genuk), Shipwright), Mary (65(70 genuk)), John (50?).
Mugford Francis age 71, Mary 70, Shapter Street Shipwright Topsham. Churchwarden 1841.
Married Mary Chown April 24, 1791 in Lympstone Devon, daughter of William Chown and Mary Bean.
Christopher & Charles Chown occupied land in Alphington Tithe awards.
2/1. John Mugford, Baptism: October 09, 1791, Lympstone Devon
2/2. Elizabeth Mugford, Baptism: April 20, 1794, Topsham
d. January 01, 1807, Lympstone Devon.
2/3. Henry Mugford, Baptism: July 08, 1796, Lympstone Devon.
Married Mary Horsewell March 12,
1820 in Topsham Devon, daughter of Roger Horsewell and Mary Street.
Census: 1851, Shipwright
She Witness to marriage Roger Horsewell, Mary Mugford
Her Baptism: April 30, 1797, Topsham
3/1. William Henry Mugford, b. 1821, Topsham.
Baptism: November 04, 1821,
Topsham Census: 1851, Tailor
4/1. William H. Mugford, b. 1844, Devonport Devon.
4/2. Mary J. Mugford, b. 1848, Devonport Devon.
3/2. Elizabeth Amelia Mugford, b. 1820, Topsham.
August 09, 1820, Topsham
married John Davey March 24, 1844 St. Peters Tiverton Devon.
4/1. Henry Francis Davey, b. 1844, Devonport Devon.
2/4. Mary Mugford, b. 1798, Lympstone
Bap: December 25, 1798, Topsham
married John Thorne Croft November 16, 1823 in Topsham Devon, son of William Croft and Ann Thorne.
He Witness to marriage Elias Croft, Elizabeth Bleckynden
More About John Thorne Croft:
Baptism: September 24, 1797, Topsham Devon
Occupation: Master Mariner
3/1. Ellen Elizabeth Croft, b. 1826, Topsham Devon.
Following from internet:
Marriage: Michael HOOPER on 25 Dec 1827 in Topsham, Devon
3/1. Susanna HOOPER
Born: 5 May 1828, Topsham, Devon
Christened: 25 May 1828, Topsham, Devon
3/2. Mary Elizabeth HOOPER
Born: 1830, Topsham, Devon
Christened: 8 Aug 1830, Topsham, Devon
3/3. Jane Amelia HOOPER
Born: 1832, Topsham, Devon
Christened: 14 Aug 1832, Topsham, Devon
3/4. William Francis HOOPER
Born: 1836, Topsham, Devon
Christened: 26 Jun 1836, Topsham, Devon
3/5. Susanna HOOPER
Born: 1837, Topsham, Devon
Christened: 12 Aug 1837, Topsham, Devon
2/6. Elizabeth Mugford, Baptism:
January 24, 1808, Topsham
2/7. William Francis Mugford, Baptism: May 07, 1810, Topsham
2/8. William Farrant Mugford,
b. 1811, Topsham. Bap
Topsham Census: 1851, Baker
married (1) Mary Mather November 24, 1833 in St. George Exeter, daughter of William Mather (a mariner) and Mary Manly, Baptism: February 08, 1813, Topsham.
William Mather s. of ROBERT MATHER and REBECCA HARDER
Mary Manly dau. of JOHN MANLY and CATHERINE LUTTERELL
Married (2) Mary Redman 15/10/1848 in Topsham, dau of John Redman and Elizabeth, Bap: January 31, 1827, Topsham Devon.
Children of William Mugford and Mary Mather are:
3/1. Elizabeth5 Mugford, b. 1837, Topsham.
3/2. Sarah Mugford, b. 1839, Topsham.
3/3. William Mugford, b. 1844, Topsham,
From Laura Jarvis via
He d 1897.
M. Celia Francis
4/1. William Mugford, b 1872
M Henrietta Vine, 1874-1964
5/1. Gwenyth Mugford, 1897
5/2. Robin Mugford, 1900,
5/3. Terence Mugford, 1901-01,
5/4. Alan Mugford, abt 1902
5/5. Geoffrey Mugford, 1905,
He was a pow in Japan in WW2. Never recovered fully. He died in Swanage.
M. Kathleen Delargy, 1908-2006
6/1. Jeanette Mugford, 1930.
6/2. Denise Mugford, 1932.
6/3. Robina Mugford, 1935-2002.
M. Michael Jarvis, 1930-2002.
7/1. Bernard Jarvis, 1964.
M. Laura Sara Louise Bloom, b
1968 - the source of this branch of the family.
8/1. Olivia Jarvis, 2002.
8/2. Joshua Jarvis, 2006.
7/2. Robin Jarvis, 1966-1999.
7/3. Andrew Jarvis, 1968.
5/6. Paul Mugford, abt 1905,
5/7. Denis Mugford, 1907-1997,
5/8. Esme Mugford, 1915
4/2. Ellen Gray Mugford, b 1867.
3/4. James Mugford, b. 1846,
Children of William Mugford and Mary Redman are:
3/5. Francis5 Mugford, b. 1849, Topsham.
3/6. Richard Mugford, b. 1850, Topsham.
3/7. William Farrant Mugford,
m. Lydia Frederica Bates (re Tom McIntyre email 10/04)
1/2. Susanne Mugford C: 25 Dec 1769 (IGI only, not Harding)
1/3. John4 Mugford, Bap.: November 13, 1771, Lympstone Devon (PR)
He married Susanna.
2/1. Susan4 Mugford, b. 1793, Lympstone Devon.
married Robert Vinnicombe July
05, 1818 in Woodbury Devon.
3/1. John George Mugford5 Vinnicombe, b. 1823, Lympstone.
December 02, 1823, Lympstone Devon
married Maria Litton.
4/1. George6 Vinnicombe, b. 1850, Lympstone Devon.
Baptism: August 30, 1850, Lympstone Devon
4/2. Maria Vinnicombe, b. 1852, Lympstone Devon;
d. January 02, 1853, Lympstone
Bap: December 27, 1852, Lympstone
4/3. William Robert Vinnicombe, b. 1857, Lympstone.
4/4. Lydia Vinnicombe, b. 1859, Lympstone Devon.
4/5. Richard Vinnicombe, b. 1860, Lympstone Devon.
3/2. Susan Vinnicombe, b. 1826, Lympstone Devon.
3/3. Elizabeth Vinnicombe, b. 1828, Lympstone Devon.
3/4. Richard Vinnicombe, b. 1831, Lympstone Devon.
September 04, 1831, Lympstone Devon
He married Mary Ann Small Dunham November 24, 1860 in Lympstone Devon, daughter of Thomas Dunham and Martha.
Baptism: October 12, 1832, Lympstone Devon
Census: 1851, Mary a "Sprig Maker".
Children of Richard Vinnicombe and Mary Dunham are:
4/1. Bessie Jane Vinnicombe, b. 1862, Lympstone Devon.
4/2. William Henry Vinnicombe, b. 1863, Lympstone Devon.
3/5. Lucy Vinnicombe, b. 1835, Lympstone Devon.
married Henry Page Down, son of
Josias Down and Ann Page.
4/1. Anne L. Down, b. 1867, Exmouth Devon.
4/2. John Henry Page Down, b. 1869, Exmouth Devon.
4/3. Ellen Eliza Vinnicombe Down, b. 1872, Withycombe Devon.
4/4. Catherine M. Down, b. 1877, Withycombe Devon.
2/2. Elizabeth Mugford, b. 1794, Lympstone Devon;
d. January 01, 1807, Lympstone
Baptism: April 20, 1794, Topsham
1/4. Elizabeth Mugford, b. 1773, Lympstone Devon;
d. November 02, 1831, Topsham.
EDWARD CARPENTER - 1707
Ch 10/4/1707, Woodbury, s of Edw
Married: IGI Elizabeth Woolcocke, 21/2/1720, Alphington.
(poss Elizabeth Woolcocks ch 12/7/1696, d of John, Exeter St Davids)
Issue (ch Woodbury, IGI)
1/1. Thomas Carpenter, Ch abt 19/4/1724, Woodbury s of Edw.
1/2. Elizabeth Carpenter, ch 5/11/1725, of Edw.
1/3. Jane Carpenter, ch 24/9/1727, Woodbury, s of Edw.
1/4. Edward Carpenter, ch 15/3/1729 (IGI - Edw only)
1/5. Robert Carpenter, ch 30/11/1735
(IGI - Edw & Elizabeth only)
FRANCIS MUGFORD - 1709
IGI (only one): Francis Mogford ch 1/10/1704, Silverton, s of John
None obvious in the area: many in Hartland, but that is a long way away.
Married Mariam Skinner June 24, 1730 in Clyst St. George Devon.
(Clyst SG, 5 m SE of Exeter, half way between Exeter & Lympstone)
Marian Skinner not found on IGI 4/2004.
A Mary Skinner ch Broad Clyst, 25/4/1709 of Thomas Skinner. Not far apart, and Clyst St George seems fro IGI to have been in Latin, so may be correct, but a lot of options.
Thomas Skinner M. Mary Taylor or Hellings, Broad Clyst, 7/7/1707 (IGI).
Admon: Francis M. Lympstone, 1740 (wills no longer exist)
Francis M. Lympstone, 1784
Children of Francis Mugford and Mariam Skinner are:
1/1. Mary2 Mugford, b. 1736, Lympstone Devon.
1/2. Henry Mugford, b. 1737, Lympstone Devon;
January 28, 1736/37, Lympstone Devon
Married: Margaret Potter, October 05, 1763, Lympstone Devon.
1/3. Francis Mugford, b. 1739, Lympstone Devon.
He married Charity Wheaton June
17, 1765 in Lympstone Devon.
Baptism: March 06, 1738/39, Lympstone Devon
Is this one of ours??
Francis Mugford, miscellaneous : returning from transportation, 20th October, 1756.
See original Trial Summary:
Crime(s): miscellaneous : returning from transportation,
Punishment Type: death,
(Punishment details may be provided at the end of the trial.)
445. (L.) Francis Mugford was indicted for that he at the gaol delivery, at Exeter, for the county of Devon, on Monday the 17th of March, in the 28th year of his present majesty, being indicted for that he on the 12th of December, in the 28th year, &c. did steal 3 l. 3 s. in money number'd, the property of William Blackmore, in the dwelling house of Rebecca Gordon, widow, was convicted for stealing 36 s. and order'd to be transported, as soon as conveniently cou'd be, to some of his majesty's plantations in America for the term of seven years, as by the record more fully may appear, and that the jurors present that the said Francis, on the 12th of July, feloniously and without any lawful cause, was at large in these realms. ++
William Pinkney . I am clerk to the clerk of the assize. Here is a certificate of the conviction of the prisoner Mugford, at the assize held at Exeter.
Q. Is it a true copy?
Pinkney. It is. I compared it with the clerk of the assize in the proper manner. ( It is read in court.)
Edward Manley. I am keeper of the prison at Exeter.
Q. Do you know the prisoner at the bar?
Manley. I do. I heard his trial there.
Q. Was he convicted ?
Manley. He was found guilty of stealing, to the value of thirty-six shillings, from Mr. William Blackmore , and received sentence of transportation for seven years.
Q. Was he transported accordingly?
Manley. I saw him on board a ship. I carried him there on the eight of May was twelve months.
Captain Prow. I took the prisoner on the Portugal Walk, at the Royal-Exchange, on the 12th of July. I was obliged to knock him down.
Q. Was he at liberty there?
Prow. He was.
Q. What provoked you to knock him down?
Prow. Because he endeavoured to get away upon seeing me, for I had brought him over in the Lisbon Packet.
Q. What did you do with him after that?
Prow. I carried him before an alderman, and had him committed.
Q. Did you meet with any accident in your voyage?
Note, He had rob'd the captain of fourteen moidores in the passage.
Prow. I did, but that does not concern this affair. I knew he had been transported, and I secured him as being a bad man.
Q. to Manley. What ship did the prisoner go on board?
Manley. He went on board a ship belonging to Mr. Buck of Biddeford.
Q. Did not an accident happen to that ship after he was on board?
Manley. I never heard of such a thing.
I was sent over by the pay-master general with some letters and warrants to Mr. Secretary Fox, and delivered them to Mr. Mettear, in Southampton-Street. I brought some men of war's tickets, which I delivered to a gentleman near the Mansion-House. I brought also bills of exchange for Mr. Kinsley, and letters to Simon Jacob Moses, a Jew, in Bury-Street, and orders to buy some woollen goods for a merchant in New York. I was obliged to come over, it was not voluntarily, with my own will. We were cast away going over, just upon the cape of Virginia; so I landed there, and since I came over I have injured no man, but always lodged at creditable houses.
The Proceedings of the Old Bailey Ref: o17561208-1
Supplementary material: John Cartwright, Jonathan Hirst, Francis Mugford, Bartholomew Ball, John Jolley, Edward M'Collister, John Milward, 8th December, 1756.
See original Trial Summary:
Punishment Type: executed,
(Punishment details may be provided at the end of the trial.)
Other trials on 08 Dec 1756
Name search for: John Cartwright , Jonathan Hirst , Francis Mugford , Bartholomew Ball , John Jolley , Edward M'Collister, John Milward ,
John Cartwright, capitally convicted in September sessions, Jonathan Hirst and Francis Mugford , in October sessions, Bartholomew Ball, John Jolley, Edward M'Collister, and John Milward were executed on Monday the 20th of December. (at Tyburn).
Edward Carpenter Married Mary Bradick, 4/11/1704, Woodbury (PR)
1/1. Mary Carpenter, ch 9/1/1705, Woodbury d of Edw
1/2. Edward Carpenter, ch 10/4/1707, Woodbury, s of Edw (PR - 31/3/07??)
1/3. Mary Carpenter, ch 21/3/1708, Woodbury dau of Edward
1/4. John Carpenter, ch 30/1/1712, Woodbury, s of Edw.
1/5. Josias Carpenter, ch abt 11/5/1711, Woodbury, s of Edw
Edward Carpenter Married Elizabeth Williams, 6/2/1671, Shillingford St George.
Edward Carpenter ch 21/12/1687, s of Laeurance & Sarah, Kenn (s of Shillingford) - probably not the right one - too young
Edward Carpenter, ch 8/4/1636, bur 27/5/1668, Broadhembury, s of Edward.
Edward Carpenter, b 23/1/1624, bur 9/6/1692, Alphington.
Mary Carpenter, ch 8/6/1766, Silverton, dau of Edward Carpenter or Yandell, & Elizabeth.
Admon: Edward Carpenter, Alphington, 1692 (no will exists).
No obvious baptisms or marriages.
It is probable that John migrated from the central or northern areas of Devon: Hartland seems to be the origin of the species.
1/1. John Mogford ch 24/2/1698, Silverton, s of John
1/2. Elizabeth Mogford, ch 29/11/1700, s of John, Silverton
1/3. Francis Mogford ch 1/10/1704, Silverton, s of John
1/4. Roger Mogford, ch 29/1/1706, s of John, Silverton
1/5. Joan Mogford ch 15/4/1711, d of John, Silverton
John Mogford M Ann Piller, 8/10/1770, Silverton
John Mogford ch 12/4/1773 s of John & Ann, Silverton
John Mugford M Sara Fursey 22/8/1776, St Stephen Exeter.
John Mogford ch 25/4/1709, Silverton, s of Walter & Jane
CHARLES BRADDICK - 1664
Ch 23/3/1664 s of Elias of Lympstone
No Marriage found for Chas.
1/1. Mary Braddick ch 9/10/1682, dau of Chas, Woodbury
1/2. Charles Braddick, ch 6/12/1684 of Chas Woodbury
1/3. Male & Female Braddick, ch 21/10/1690, of Chas, Woodbury
Maybe 2nd marriage if first wife died 21/10/90
Charles Braddick M Elizth Rowiell, 12/1/1692, Lympstone
Issue ch @ Lympstone:
1/4. Mary Braddick, ch 5/11/1693, d 24/10/1698, dau of Charles.
1/5. Elizabeth Braddick, ch 17/11/1795, d 6/2/1702, dau of Charles.
1/6. Charles Braddick, ch 25/8/1700, d 2/1703, s of Charles.
1/7. Robart Braddick, ch 13/9/1702, s of Charles.
1/8. Elizabeth Braddick, ch 20/10/1703, of Chas, Woodbury
Elizeus Bradicke ch 13/12/1636 s of Elizeus & Mary, Branscombe.
IGI also has 1630, Lympstone
Samuel Bradicke ch 8/1/1640 of Ellis & Mary, Branscombe
Nicholas Bradicke ch 14/12/1634 s of Elizeus & Mary, Branscombe
Elyas Braddicke M Katherine Scott, 19/4/1656, Lympstone
IGI has 2 entries:
Katherine Scott birth 1632, Lympstone
Katheren Scott ch 16/6/1636, d of Richard & Christian, Aylesbeare
1/1. Elias Braddick, ch 28/12/1656, s of Elias, Lympstone
1/2. Robert Bradick ch 7/7/1661 s of Elias, Lympstone
1/3. Charles Braddicke ch 23/3/1664 s of Elias of Lympstone
1/4. Katherine Braddicke ch 26/12/1668 d of Elias, Lympstone
1/5. Julian Braddick ch 12/12/1671 s of Elias, Lympstone
Richard Scott ch abt 19/11/1615, s of Nich, Woodbury
Richaurde Scott ch abt 14/6/1618, s of Robt, Woodbury
Richard Scott, ch 19/11/1615 s of Thomas, Ottery St Mary.
Ditto 12/8/1610 & 21/2/1613
Richard Scott M Christian Wescott, 11/6/1635, Aylesbeare (no ch for CW)
1/1. Katherine Scott birth 1632, Lympstone
1/1. Katheren Scott ch 16/6/1636, d of Richard & Christian, Aylesbeare
1/2. Francis Scott, ch 6/1/1639, d of Richard, Aylesbeare
1/3. Grace Scot, ch 8/12/1642, dau of Richard, Aylesbeare
1/4. Richard Scot, ch 28/2/1645, s of Richard, Aylesbeare.
William MOgford C: 20 Oct 1788
Francis MOgford, Silverton, Devon, Mother: Betty
Sarah MOgford C: 30 Dec 1787
Father: Francis & Mary MOgford Butterleigh, Devon, (3m. W of Collumpton)
Abraham MOgford C: 18 Oct 1738
Father: Francis MOgford Silverton, Devon, Mother: Mary
Ch of John Mogford, ch Silverton, Devon:
John Mogford, 24/2/1698
Elizabeth Mogford 29/11/1700
Francis MOgford C: 1 Oct 1704
PR: Francis Mugford, born 19/9/1704, ch 1/10/1704, father John Mogford of Silverton.
Roger MOgford C: 29 Jan 1706
Joan MOgford C: 15 Apr 1711
Silverton abt 10 miles N of Exeter.
Marriages of John Mu/oford
28/1/1698 to Dorkas Trick, Clawton, Devon
23/5/1694 to Elizabeth Netherway, Witheridge, Devon.
12/4/1694 to Grace Trick, Hartland, Devon
Shillingford: nil (v small pop.)
Alphington village: Francis Mugford (60, Ag Lab), Ann (60).
Topsham, Ship? St:
Francis Mugford (70, Shipwright), Mary (65), John (50?).
Topsham, Ford? St:
Priscilla Matthews (60, Dairy Maid), Priscilla (25), William (9), James (8), William Mugford (100, gardener??).
From "The establishment of the Moravian Mission in Labrador 1752-1771".
BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE VESSEL EMPLOYED IN THE SERVICE OF THE MISSION ON THE COAST OF LABRADOR, AND OF THE MORE REMARKABLE DELIVERANCES FROM IMMINENT PERIL, WHICH SHE HAS EXPERIENCED FROM THE YEAR 1770 TO THE PRESENT TIME.
(From: PERIODICAL ACCOUNTS, Vol. 21, 75-83,120-33)
The Divine protection vouchsafed to the ship, which, for eighty-four years, has been the medium of annual communication between the settlements on the coast of Labrador and the Church at home, may justly be regarded as one of the most remarkable features in the history of the Brethren's Missions. So marvellous has it been, that it has arrested the attention of candid and observant men of the world, as well as of children of God in various ranks of society, and of various Christian denominations, -- especially of such as were experienced in maritime affairs. While the former have paid a willing, and, in some instances, a practical homage to a truth, the nature and value of which they were able but imperfectly to appreciate, the latter have been led to ponder with admiring gratitude the gracious dealings of Jehovah with His servants and messengers, and to acknowledge the striking proof hereby afforded, that "whatsoever the Lord pleaseth, that doth He in heaven and in earth, in the sea, and all deep places." (Ps. cxxxv. 6).
/75/ A wish having been often expressed that a somewhat detailed account should be published relative to the vessel employed in the service of the Labrador Mission, and the deliverances from imminent danger which she has from time to time experienced, it has been thought that the present would be a suitable occasion for the attempt to gratify it. In preparing the following statements, the Editor has only to regret, that the imperfection of the materials to which he has had access, including the documents in the archives of the "Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel," and the narrow limits within which it is obviously necessary that he should confine himself, have not allowed him to render it as complete as he could have desired. It will be readily understood, that the facts and circumstances related are but a selection from those which might be adduced, and which, to a considerable extent, have already been recorded in the pages of the Periodical Accounts. To this journal the reader is referred for particulars of occurrences since the year 1790.
It was at the general Synod of the Brethren's Church, held at Marienborn in the year 1769, that the resolution was definitely taken to attempt the establishment of a Mission on the coast of Labrador. The carrying out of this resolution was entrusted principally to the "Brethren's Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel," whose members had already shewed the lively interest which they felt in the conversion of the Esquimaux, by the assistance they had rendered to Erhardt in 1752, and to Haven and Drachart in 1764 and 1765, in their endeavours to plant the standard of the Cross among those rude and barbarous heathen. Though these several attempts had been attended with no immediate success, and the first had proved fatal to the leader of the enterprise, the experience acquired by means of them was, in many respects, of the highest value. It served to place in the clearest light, the manifold difficulties and inconvenience, inseparable from any effort to communicate with Labrador by way of Newfoundland, and the consequent necessity of providing a vessel for the maintenance of a direct and regular intercourses with that coast, in the event of a Mission being established upon it. A visit of a preliminary and exploratory character having been determined on in the early part of the year 1770, it became, therefore, one of the first objects of the Society, to procure such a vessel, and to engage the services of a trustworthy and experienced captain for the conduct of the expedition. After a good deal of inquiry in London and in other ports, a small sloop of eighty tons burden, called the JERSEY PACKET, was purchased and fitted out /76/ by the Society, or rather, by "the ship's company," and the command of her given to Captain Francis Mugford. She is described, in a MS. letter of Br. Benj. La Trobe to the Directing Board of the Unity, as not only "a tight and sound ship, but also a prime sailer, readily obedient to the helm, and out-sailing all the vessels in the river on the passage down to Gravesend." From the same letter, it appears, that the Brethren, who were connected with this expedition in one or other capacity, were ten in number, of whom Jens Haven, Lawrence Drachart, and Stephen Jensen, were considered the leaders. The vessel, after calling at Lymington, Hants, for a supply of sails, and at Exmouth, in Devonshire, for a quantity of fishing tackle, the gift of Mr. S. Parminter, himself an honorary member of the Society, proceeded /77/ on her voyage to Labrador, where, under the protecting care of God, she arrived in safety on the 24th of July. The result of this expedition was the establishment of the most friendly relations with the Esquimaux population, and the selection, with their full concurrence, of a suitable locality for a Missionary settlement. After accomplishing these important objects, the whole party returned to England in the autumn of the same year.
In the course of the following winter, the final arrangements were made for the establishment of the long proposed Mission. The Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel, having deliberately and cheerfully renewed its engagement to care for the temporal support of the Mission, a vessel of somewhat larger dimensions, called THE AMITY, was purchased by the ship's company, and, having been furnished by the Society with stores of every kind, requisite for the commencement of the intended station, was dispatched to the coast of Labrador, under the orders of Captain Mugford. Among the company on board, consisting of fourteen persons, were the Brn. Haven, Brasen, and Schneider, with their wives, and the veteran Greenland Missionary, Lawrence Drachart. Having been solemnly commended to the grace /78/ and protecting care of God, in a meeting of the Congregation, held on the 5th of May, in the Brethren's Chapel in Fetter-lane, they sailed from the Thames on the 8th of the same month. After a tedious voyage of thirteen weeks, by way of St. John's, Newfoundland, they reached the place of their destination, Nunengoak or Unity's Bay, on the 9th of August. During the latter portion of the voyage, they encountered many perils, being often obliged by storms to run into bays, between numberless islands and sunken rocks, and being surrounded at times by vast mountains of ice and icefields, threatening momentary destruction to the vessel. Here they were received with great joy by the Esquimaux, and in a short time proceeded to the settlement of Nain, the oldest Missionary station of the four now existing in Labrador, and ordinarily the residence of the superintendent of the Mission. The AMITY returned to London in safety on the 26th of September.
The details of the expedition to the northward, undertaken in August, 1774, by the Brn. Brasen, Lehman, Haven, and Lister, for the purpose of fixing on a suitable place for a second settlement, do not fall within the scope of this article. It is well known to the readers of our Missionary history, that the small sloop in which they performed it was totally wrecked on their return near the rocky promontory of Kiglapeit, and that the Brn. Brasen and Lehman lost their lives in the attempt to reach the shore. The establishment of Okkak, in the course of the following year (1775), of Hopedale, in the year 1782, near the spot where Erhardt first landed in 1752, and near which he lost his life, and at Hebron, in the Bay of Kangertluksoak, in 1831, however interesting in themselves, are events connected with the history of the Mission rather than with that of the Ship, which is the proper object of this paper. We therefore return to the AMITY, which we left at anchor in the Thames, on her safe arrival from her first visit to Labrador.
On her second voyage in 1772, she proceeded first to the banks of Newfoundland for the purpose of fishing, the hope being entertained, that, by the profit derived from the fishery, a portion of the very large expense attendant on the new undertaking might be defrayed. Owing to this arrangement, the AMITY did not reach Nain till the end of October, the little Missionary colony at that place having meanwhile nearly given up all hope of her arrival, and consequently of obtaining any additional supply of provisions. They had but two pieces of butcher's meat left, and very little food of any kind. They had therefore sought and gathered all the black and red berries growing upon the neighbouring hills, dried them, and laid them carefully by. Thus circumstanced, their distress was turned into the greater joy, when the ship at length appeared in Unity's harbour on the 28th of October. "Had you seen the joy that reigned among us," writes one of the Missionaries, "when we heard that the ship was really arrived, you would never forget it, for we had given her up, and had resigned ourselves to the extremest poverty. I cannot say that a dejected spirit prevailed among us; but we were resolved to submit to whatever might happen, /79/ hoping and believing, that He who had sent us hither, who had numbered our very hairs, and without whose permission not one of them could fall to the ground, would mercifully preserve us." In another letter, it is remarked, "The ship's staying away so long had two effects -- first, it convinced us that nothing is too hard for the Lord, and that He can command the seas to remain open even to this late period of the year, so as to allow the approach of the vessel sent for our relief. In the second place it made us all the more thankful for the provision sent us." It was late in December before the ship returned to her moorings in the Thames.
Of the voyages performed by the Amity in the years 1773 to 1776, inclusive, nothing of interest appears to be on record. In 1777, a sloop of seventy tons, called THE GOOD INTENT, took her place in the service of the Society, and retained it till the year 1780. It was on the return of this vessel from her second voyage, in the autumn of 1778, that she had the misfortune to be captured by a French privateer. In this instance, however, as in so many others, the Lord was pleased mercifully to interpose for the prevention alike of serious loss to the Society, and of material inconvenience to the Mission in Labrador. The vessel was re- captured by a British cruiser before she could reach a French port; and, though the captain and crew were carried into Dunkirk, together with the letters and journals of the Missionaries, the latter were immediately given up to the Society, (for the most part unopened) on the application of its President Br. James Hutton to the French Minister of Marine; and the former were exchanged, in the course of the ensuing spring, by means of the "cartel" which was at the time in course of negotiation. In one important particular, the occurrence just referred to proved a positive benefit to the Society. It was the occasion of a safe-conduct being granted to the vessel by the King of France, and by the American Minister at the Court of Versailles, the celebrated Dr. Benjamin Franklin, empowering her to pass unmolested by the cruisers of both nations, on her voyage to and from the coast of Labrador.
/80/ Between the years 1780 and 1786 inclusive, the AMITY was again employed in the service of the Labrador Mission; the command of the vessel being, however, resigned in 1782 by Captain Mugford in favour of Br. James Fraser, who had acted as mate during several voyages. In April, 1787, the first HARMONY was launched at Bursledon, near Southampton, having been built there under the friendly superintendence of Mr. Thomas Mitchell, one of the deputy surveyors of the Navy, and an honourary member of the Society. She was a brig of 133 tons, and proved an excellent ship throughout the whole of her service of fifteen years.
The first six voyages performed by the HARMONY appear to have been attended with no circumstances deserving particular notice; but the seventh, in the year 1793, is remarkable, as having been the longest recorded in the annals of the Society. This is in part attributable to her detention of above two months at Okkak, while an attempt was being made by the people on board to catch whales in the neighbourhood of that settlement, but in part also, to the perils of the seas, which she encountered on her passage thence to the Orkneys. The following is the report of the voyage home, contained in the eleventh number of the Periodical Accounts: --
"The HARMONY left Okkak on the 22nd of November, with the Missionaries David Kriegelstein and William Turner, and their wives, on board. Their passage to the Orkneys was remarkably boisterous, and for several days and nights it blew so hard, and the sea ran so high, that the captain and seamen were under great apprehensions for the safety of the ship. However, through the /81/ kind providence of God, they arrived safe, on the 25th of December, at Stromness, from whence we received the first account of the ship's return on the 13th of January. The Society had suffered some uneasiness, on account of the unusual delay of her return, which led to various conjectures. As we naturally supposed, that, by going with the Hudson's Bay convoy in May, she must arrive rather too early on the coast to find an easy entrance into any of our harbours, on account of the great quantity of drift-ice at that time of the year, some feared that a misfortune might have befallen her among the ice; or, supposing her safely arrived on the coast, that she was blocked up by the ice entering the bay of Okkak in autumn, which had been nearly the case last year; or that she had met with some accident in returning home at so late a season, in the late severe storms. Though we did not lose that confidence in God, with which we are justly inspired, when we consider that He has graciously averted all harm from the ship and company, now above twenty years, yet we must own that the prospect sometimes appeared rather gloomy; and we frequently joined in prayer, that He would bring the ship and our Brethren safe to us. He answered our prayers, and our fears were put to shame.
From Yarmouth Roads, we received, on the 18th, the painful account, that Br. Kriegelstein had departed this life on the passage thither, by occasion of an inflammatory disorder in his lungs. He had been on shore at Stromness, where the company went to church. Both at church and in returning on board, after walking a good deal for exercise, he appears to have caught a violent cold, which at length brought on an inflammation, and hastened his dissolution. He expected it himself, and expressed his resignation to the will of the Lord, to whom he had devoted himself in life and death. The letter, which brought the account of his departure, mentioned, at the same time, that the rest of the passengers, and almost the whole crew, were ailing; upon which, two of the members of the Society went down the river to meet them, and to administer some comfort and assistance, especially to the widow of our late Brother. They met the ship in Long Reach, and arrived with the passengers in London, on the 20th of January. The corpse of our late Br. Kriegelstein was also safely brought on shore, and interred, on the 22nd, in our burial ground at Chelsea.
In 1797, the HARMONY was mercifully preserved from capture on her passage home. Having sailed from Hopedale on the 22nd of September, she reached Stromness, in the Orkneys, on the 10th of October. Here she found the Apollo frigate, Captain Manley, destined to convoy the Hudson's Bay ships home. Two of the latter arrived on the 11th at Stromness, but the third being still missing, and not arriving up to the 25th, the Apollo proceeded in quest of her; and, after some days, fell in with a French frigate, cruising for the Hudson's Bay ships, which she attacked and compelled to strike. This frigate had been discovered by the HARMONY, in a moonlight night, some days previous to her arrival at Stromness, a few miles to the south; and it is to be /82/ considered as a merciful interposition of God's providence, that she was not perceived by the enemy and captured. During the Apollo's absence, the third ship arrived; and, on the 23rd of November, the whole convoy left Stromness, and reached the Thames in safety. Captain Manley, of the Apollo, honoured the Missionaries with a visit, and showed them every kind attention.
At Stromness, they were very cordially received by a gentleman belonging to the Edinburgh Missionary Society, who took every opportunity of conversing with them and introducing them to his friends. He also presented them with a copy of the numbers of the Missionary Magazine, published by the Rev. Mr. Ewing, by the perusal of which they were much pleased and edified during the voyage home.
The most striking deliverance of the vessel from hostile attacks was, however, that which marked the year 1803, and which cannot be better described than in the language of the Periodical Accounts. The following notice of the voyage was appended, by the editor, to the letters received from the Missionaries in Labrador, in the autumn of that year: --
"The RESOLUTION left London on the 7th of June, and proceeded (as usual in times of war) with the Hudson's Bay convoy to the Orkneys, from whence she made the best of her way to Labrador, but was three weeks detained by the ice on the coast, before she could reach Okkak. After transacting the usual business at the three settlements, Captain Fraser hastened back to the Orkneys, to meet the convoy taking the Hudson's Bay ships home, which, during the whole of the last war, he never failed to effect. But, this year, it pleased God to put our faith and patience to some trial; for the convoy arriving in the river without him, and no tidings whatever reaching us till the 23rd of December, we began to entertain great apprehensions for the safety of the ship; more especially as there had been, about the usual time of her arrival at Stromness, some very violent storms in the northern seas, which proved the total destruction of many vessels. At length a letter from Captain Fraser, dated at Stromness, December 5th, relieved us from our fears, and created within us the most lively sense of gratitude to God for the merciful preservation granted to him on his passage. He left Hopedale on the 10th of October, and in sixteen days was within about three days' sail from the Orkneys, when strong easterly gales drove him back, and kept him three weeks longer at sea. But the very storms we dreaded, proved, by God's great mercy, the means of his deliverance from the enemy. On the 18th of November he was chased by a French frigate, brought to, and forced to keep her company. But the sea ran so high, that it was impossible for the frigate to get out a boat to board the RESOLUTION, and continued so during the night and the following day. The second night proving extremely dark and boisterous, the captain, setting as much sail as /83/ the ship would carry, ventured to attempt his escape, and in the morning saw no more of the frigate. But two days after, he had the mortification to meet her again, and to be chassed and brought to a second time. Again the Lord interposed in his and our behalf. The wind was so violent, that the frigate could not put out a boat, and during the following night, the captain, crowding all sail, escaped again, and saw no more of the enemy. On December 2nd he reached Stromness. During the tremendous storms in December he lay there in safety, and arrived in the river on the 15th of January, 1804."
/120/ In the year 1808 the RESOLUTION was exchanged for the HECTOR; and this vessel, before two months had elapsed, gave place to the JEMIMA, a much better ship, which performed the voyage to Labrador in the summer of the following year. It may be safely asserted, that no vessel employed by the Society, during a period of fourscore years, has encountered such dangers, been so roughly handled, or experienced protection and deliverance so marvellous as this little brig of 180 tons, which, having been purchased, and not built, like the three "HARMONYS," expressly for Arctic service, was less fitted to encounter its peculiar perils.
On her third voyage in 1811, she sailed from the Thames on the 7th of June, but was unable to leave Yarmouth Roads till nearly a month after that date, owing to some circumstance connected with the convoy. Her passage across the Atlantic was unusually boisterous, and it was the 8th of September before she arrived at Hopedale, six weeks later than in the year preceding. In this very delay, the providential care of God was however plainly manifested, as there was not only an unusual quantity, but also a long continuance of drift-ice upon the coast. Even had she reached it earlier, she could not have attempted, without the greatest risk, to force a passage through it. On her subsequent voyage from Nain to Okkak, the weather was severe in the extreme, and the mercy of God in her preservation was thankfully acknowledged by all on board. The cold was so intense, though it was only September, that the running rigging could not work through the blocks, and the sails once set, could not have been handed, had it been needful. Indeed, the sails themselves were rendered so stiff by the frost as to be quite unmanageable. But it pleased the Lord to grant wind and weather so favourable, that nothing further was required than to steer the vessel. On reaching Okkak on the 29th of September, the sailors were obliged to go aloft, and strike off the ice, before they could furl the sails. Another circumstance attending this tedious and perilous voyage is deserving of notice, viz. that her late arrival at Okkak afforded time for the return of the Brn. Kohlmeister and Kmoch to that settlement, from their adventurous voyage to Ungava-bay, and for the consequent transmission to London of their interesting journals.
The year 1816, as is well known, was marked by a calamity, similar to that which has recently befallen the Mission to Labrador, though happily affecting only one out of the three stations then existing, viz. Hopedale, the most southern. What cause of thankfulness to /121/ is not afforded by the fact, that the failures referred to, are the only ones on record during a period of eighty-three years!
The report of the voyage of 1816, contained in the Periodical Accounts, is prefaced with the remark, that the elements seemed to have undergone some revolution in Labrador as in Europe, during the summer of that year. On reaching the drift-ice on the 16th of July, Capt. Fraser found it to extend to a distance of full 200 miles from the coast, and after attempting in vain to find a passage through it, first to Hopedale, then to Nain, and lastly to Okkak, he found himself by degrees completely inclosed by the ice. For six days and nights the vessel was in the most imminent danger of being crushed to pieces; nor was it without great and continuous exertions, that she was at length brought to the outer edge. This conflict with the frozen element lasted forty-nine days, at the close of which the JEMIMA reached Okkak in safety, to the astonishment of the Esquimaux as well as of the Missionaries. The very next day, August 30th, the whole coast, as far as the eye could discover, was entirely choked up by ice, which presented such obstacles to navigation, that Capt. Fraser was twice driven back by it, on his passage from Okkak to Nain. On the 3rd of October, he attempted to proceed to Hopedale; but, though the weather was fine, he had himself but little expectation of reaching that settlement. This feeling of his, which he mentioned to the Missionaries at Nain, did not however prevent Br. and Sr. Kmoch and the Brn. Christensen and Korner, from going on board the ship, in pursuance of the appointment to Hopedale which they had received. On the very evening of their departure from Nain, it began to blow exceedingly hard, with an immense fall of snow, and very thick weather. Being unable to see a ship's length, and being within half a mile of a dangerous reef, the captain was obliged to carry some sail to clear it, which he did but just accomplish. The gale subsequently increasing, and the wind being right on shore, he could not venture to carry sail any longer, and was obliged to lay the ship to, although the sea broke continually over it. After contending for two successive days with the furious elements, he was at length compelled, on the 5th of October, to abandon the attempt to reach Hopedale, and to bear away for England. On the homeward passage a gale resembling a hurricane was encountered on the 8th, 9th, and 10th of October, which in the night, between the two latter days, was so violent, that the captain expected the ship would have foundered. At one time she was struck by a sea that twisted her in such a manner, that the very seams on her larboard side opened, and the water gushed into the cabin and the mate's berth, as from a pump. The Lord was, however, pleased to protect both ship and company from serious injury, and to bring them in safety to the Thames, on the 28th of October.
After spending the winter in England, Br. and Sr. Kmoch returned to Labrador the following year, accompanied by the Brn. Korner and Beck. They were, however, destined to encounter perils on their passage out, exceeding in number and in magnitude even those which /122/ had rendered the voyage of 1816 so memorable. As a lively and correct account of the dangers, which are more or less attendant on Arctic navigation, even in latitudes much lower than those which have recently witnessed the achievements and endurances of our gallant countrymen, and as a record of the wonderful help and protection vouchsafed by the Lord to His feeble servants, the following extracts from the Journal of Br. Kmoch cannot fail to be acceptable to our readers. Graphic in themselves, and exhibiting considerable power of observation and description, they afford a pleasing insight into the character of the writer, who, as the patriarch of the Labrador Mission, is still enjoying, at the age of more than fourscore years, the earthly rest which his faithful services have so well earned.
After describing the voyage of the JEMIMA to Stromness, whence she sailed on the 14th of June, and the favourable passage across the Atlantic, up to the close of the month, Br. Kmoch proceeds: --
"Between the 4th and 5th of July, we heard and saw many icebirds. This bird is about the size of a starling, black, with white and yellow spots, and is met with about 200 English miles from the Labrador coast. When the sailors hear it, they know that they are not far from the ice. It flies about a ship chiefly in the night, and is known by its singular voice, which resembles a loud laugh.
"7th. The morning was cold and rainy. In all directions, drift-ice was to be seen. In the afternoon it cleared up a little, and we entered an opening in the ice, looking like a bay. The continual rustling and roaring of the ice reminded us of the noise made by the carriages in the streets of London, when one is standing in the golden gallery of St. Paul's cathedral. The mountains and large flakes of ice take all manner of singular forms, some resembling castles, others churches, waggons, and even creatures of various descriptions. As we or they changed positions, the same objects acquired a quite different appearance; and what had before appeared like a church, looked like a huge floating monster. Sitting on deck, and contemplating these wonderful works of God, I almost lost myself in endeavouring to solve the question, -- `for what purpose these exhibitions are made, when so few can behold them, as they so soon vanish, by returning to their former fluid and undefined state.' But surely everything is done with design, though short-sighted man cannot comprehend it. Having in vain exerted ourselves to penetrate through the ice, we returned at night into the open sea.
"14th. Land was discovered ahead. It was the coast of Labrador, sixty or eighty miles south of Hopedale. We were close to the ice, and as a small opening presented itself, the captain ventured to push in, hoping, if he could penetrate, to find open water between the ice and the coast. For some time we got nearer to the land, but were obliged at night to fasten the ship with two grapnels to a large field. This was elevated between five or six feet above the water's edge, and between fifty and sixty feet in thickness below it. It might be 300 feet in diameter, flat at the top, and as smooth as a meadow covered /123/ with snow. The wind has but little power over such huge masses, and they move very slowly with the current. There are small streams and pools of fresh water found in all those large pieces. Our situation now defended us against the smaller flakes, which rushed by and were turned off by the large field, without reaching the ship. We were all well pleased with our place of refuge, and lay here three whole days, with the brightest weather, and as safe as in the most commodious haven; but I cannot say that I felt easy, though I hid my anxiety from the party. I feared that a gale of wind might overtake us in this situation, and carry fields larger than that in which we lay, when the most dreadful consequences might ensue; and the sequel proved, that I was not much mistaken.
"On the 17th, the wind came round to the south, and we conceived fresh hopes of the way being rendered open for us.
"18th. The weather was clear, and the wind in our favour; we therefore took up our grapnel, got clear of our floating haven, and again endeavoured to penetrate through some small openings. Both we and the ship's company were peculiarly impressed with gratitude for the protection and rest we had enjoyed, and the warmth of a summer's sun felt very comfortable among these masses of ice. The clearness of the atmosphere today caused them to appear singularly picturesque. It seemed as if we were surrounded by immense white walls and towers. In the afternoon, we had penetrated to the open water, between the ice and the land, but we durst not venture nearer, as the sea is here full of sunken rocks, and the captain knew of no harbour on this part of the coast. Having found another large piece of ice convenient for the purpose, we fastened the ship to it. In the evening, a thick fog overspread us from the north- east, and we were again quite surrounded by ice, which, however, was soon after dispersed by a strong north-west wind.
"In the night, between the 19th and 20th, we were driven back by a strong current to nearly the same situation we had left on the 17th, only somewhat nearer to the coast. On the 20th, the morning was fine, and we vainly endeavoured to get clear, but towards evening the sky lowered, and it grew very dark. The air also felt so oppressive, that we all went to bed, and every one of us was troubled with uneasy dreams. At midnight we heard a great noise on deck. We hastened thither to know the cause, and found the ship driving fast towards a huge ice mountain, on which we expected every moment to suffer shipwreck. The sailors exerted themselves to the utmost, but it was by God's merciful providence alone that we were saved. The night was excessively cold with rain, and the poor people suffered much. We were now driven to and fro at the mercy of the ice, till one in the morning, when we succeeded in fastening the ship again to a large field. But all this was only the prelude to greater terrors. Deliverance from danger is so gratifying, that it raises one's spirits above the common level. We made a hearty breakfast, and retired again into our cabins. At one, the cook, in his usual boisterous way, aroused us by announcing dinner, and putting a large piece of pork and a huge pudding upon the table, of which /124/ we partook with a good appetite, but in silence, every one seemingly buried in thought, or only half awake. Shortly after, the wind changed to north-east and north, increasing gradually, till it turned into a furious storm. Top-masts were lowered, and everything done to ease the ship. We now saw an immense ice-mountain at a distance, towards which we were driving, without the power of turning aside. Between six and seven, we were again roused by a great outcry on deck. We ran up, and saw our ship, with the field to which we were fast, with great swiftness approaching towards the mountain; nor did there appear the smallest hope of escaping being crushed to atoms between it and the field. However, by veering out as much cable as we could, the ship got to such a distance, that the mountain passed through between us and the field. We all cried fervently to the Lord for speedy help in this most perilous situation; for if we had but touched the mountain, we must have been instantly destroyed. One of our cables was broken, and we lost a grapnel. The ship also sustained some damage. But we were now left to the mercy of the storm and current, both of which were violent; and exposed likewise to the large fields of ice, which floated all around us, being from ten to twenty feet in thickness. The following night was dreadfully dark, the heavens covered with the blackest clouds driven by a furious wind, the roaring and the howling of the ice as it moved along, the fields shoving and dashing against each other, were truly terrible. A fender was made of a large beam, suspended by ropes to the ship's sides, to secure her in some measure from the ice; but the ropes were soon cut by its sharp edges, and we lost the fender. Repeated attempts were now made to make the ship again fast to some large field; and the second mate, a clever young man, full of spirit and willingness, swung himself several times off, and upon such fields as approached us, endeavouring to fix a grapnel to them, but in vain, and we even lost another grapnel on this occasion. The storm indeed dispersed the ice, and made openings in several places; but our situation was thereby rendered only still more alarming, for when the ship got into open water, her motion became more rapid by the power of the wind, and consequently the blows she received from the ice more violent. Whenever therefore we perceived a field of ice through the gloom, towards which we were hurried, nothing appeared more probable, than that the violence of the shock would determine our fate, and be attended with immediate destruction to the vessel. Such shocks were repeated every five or ten minutes, and sometimes oftener, and the longer she remained exposed to the wind, the more violently she ran against the sharp edges and spits of the ice, not having any power to avoid them. After every stroke, we tried the pumps, to find whether we had sprung a leak; but the Lord kept His hand over us, and preserved us in a manner almost miraculous. In this awful situation, we offered up fervent prayers to Him, who alone is able to save, and besought Him, that, if it were His divine will, that we should end our lives among the ice, He would, for the sake of his precious merits, soon take us home to Himself, nor /125/ let us die a miserable death from cold and hunger, floating about in this boisterous ocean.
"It is impossible to describe all the horrors of this eventful night, in which we expected every approaching ice-field to be fraught with death. We were full ten hours in this dreadful situation, till about six in the morning, when we were driven into open water, not far from the coast. We could hardly believe, that we had got clear of the ice; all seemed as a dream. We now ventured to carry some sail, with a view to bear up against the wind. The ship had become leaky, and we were obliged to keep the pump a-going, with only about ten minutes rest at a time. Both the sailors and we were thereby so much exhausted, that whenever any one sat down, he immediately fell asleep.
"During the afternoon, the wind abated, and towards evening it fell calm. A thick mist ensued, which, however, soon dispersed, when we found ourselves near a high rock, towards which the current was fast carrying us. We were now in great danger of suffering shipwreck among the rocks, but by God's mercy, the good management of our captain succeeded in steering clear of them; and after sunset, the heavens were free from clouds. A magnificent northern light illumined the horizon, and as we were again among floating pieces of ice, its brightness enabled us to avoid them. I retired to rest, but, after midnight, was roused by the cracking noise made by the ice against the sides of the vessel. In an instant, I was on deck, and found that we were forcing our way through a quantity of floating ice, out of which we soon got again into open water. The wind also turned in our favour, and carried us swiftly forward towards the Hopedale shore. Every one on board was again in full expectation of soon reaching the end of our voyage, and ready to forget all former troubles. But alas, arriving at the same spot, from which we had been driven yesterday, we found our way anew blocked up with a vast quantity of ice. The wind also drove us irresistibly towards it. We were now in a great dilemma. If we went between the islands, where the sea is full of sunken rocks, we were in danger of striking upon one of them, and being instantly lost; again, if we ventured into the ice, it was doubtful, whether the ship would bear many more such shocks as she had received. At length, the former measure was determined on, as, in case of any mishap, there might be some possibility of escaping to shore."
After encountering a succession of further perils and disappointments for three additional weeks, the HARMONY was brought safely into Hopedale harbour on the 9th of August.
To the foregoing narrative the foregoing remarks are appended by the Editor of the Per. Accts.: -- "The captain and mate report, that though, for these three years past, they have met with an unusual quantity of ice on the coast of Labrador, yet, in no year, since the beginning of the Mission, has it appeared so dreadfully on the increase. The colour likewise of this year's ice was different from that usually seen, and the size of the ice-mountains and thickness of the fields immense, with sand-stones imbedded in them. As a great part of the coast of Greenland, which for centuries has been choked up with ice, apparently immoveable, has, by some revolution, been cleared, this may perhaps account for the great quantity alluded to."
In the year 1818, another vessel, a brig of 176 tons, was built for the service of the Mission in Labrador, to which the name of "THE HARMONY" was again given. She proved an excellent ship, and continued in the employment of the Society for a period of thirteen years. The first voyage in 1819, proved difficult and hazardous, and she did not reach Okkak, the station first visited, till the 20th of August. The Missionaries wrote: "The coast was everywhere choked up with ice, and the wind, blowing continually from the sea, and forcing it directly into every bay and inlet, it seemed impossible for the ship to approach the coast. Yet the Lord of heaven and earth commanded, and provided a passage for her through every obstacle, and we had the inexpressible joy to see her arrive without any damage."
The year 1821, memorable for the celebration of the fifty years' jubilee of Nain, the first Missionary settlement formed in Labrador, was rendered additionally so by the visit of the CLINKER sloop-of-war, commanded by Capt. W. Martin. This officer, having been commissioned by Sir Charles Hamilton, Governor of Newfoundland, to make a survey of the coast, and afford the Missionaries of the Brethren residing upon it any assistance which their circumstances might call for, arrived at Okkak in the middle of August, and thence proceeded to Nain, which he reached on the 21st of the same month, and where he gave a feast, consisting of boiled peas and biscuit, to the Esquimaux congregation, as an after-celebration of the jubilee. The entertainment was opened by the singing of the hymn, "Now, let us praise the Lord," and concluded with "Praise God for ever;" and was conducted throughout with great decorum -- several short but appropriate addresses being delivered before its close. The CLINKER was meanwhile decorated with fifty flags of different nations. From Nain to Hopedale she had the benefit of being accompanied and piloted by the HARMONY, the navigation being in the highest degree intricate and dangerous. This unlooked-for visit afforded great pleasure to the Missionaries and to their Esquimaux flocks. The demeanour of Capt. Martin, in his intercourse with both, was such as became a Christian officer; and nothing occurred to disturb the peaceful and orderly course of the several congregations. The report which he made to the Governor on his return, was highly favourable to the character of the Mission, and of all engaged in it, and may therefore be considered to have done a real service to the cause.
/127/ The voyages of the HARMONY in 1826 and 1829 were rendered very difficult and dangerous by the quantity of ice which beset the coast of Labrador; in the former year, to a distance of nearly 400 miles from the land. In 1829, Capt. Fraser ventured, in passing from Hopedale to Nain, to try a new channel between the islands and the coast; and, though the attempt was a somewhat hazardous one, it succeeded completely, through the blessing of God, on the skill and care of the Esquimaux pilots. The passage outside the islands would probably have occupied several weeks, owing to the accumulation of ice on their eastern shores. It had been intended, that the ship should proceed as far as the Bay of Kangertluksoak (where Hebron is now situated), but the lateness of her arrival at Okkak frustrated this design.
In 1830, the HARMONY was accompanied by the OLIVER, a vessel chartered by the Society for the purpose of assisting in the transport of stores to the Bay of Kangertluksoak, where it had been determined to establish a fourth settlement. The voyage proved a successful one, both ships entering the bay, and delivering their cargoes without accident, though the access was by no means easy, and the navigation previously unknown. Her last voyage in 1831, with the VENUS for her consort, was attended with somewhat greater hazard, but, through the mercy of God, with no serious injury to either vessel.
It being considered necessary, in prospect of the establishment of a fourth station, to provide a ship of larger dimensions for the use of the Mission, the present HARMONY, the third of the name, was built at Yarmouth during the autumn and winter of 1831 and 1832, at an expense of about 3500 pounds. Br. Taylor superintended the building, as in the case of her predecessor. She is a brig, or rather a snow, of about 230 tons burden, and has proved herself well adapted to the performance of the service to which she is destined. Her first voyage, performed in the year 1832, a year remarkable as being the centenary of the Brethren's Missions, was marked by conflicts with the ice, more continuous and more alarming than had been experienced since the year 1817. The following extract of a letter from Capt. Taylor to the Treasurer of the Society, describing the peculiar hazards encountered by the HARMONY on her outward passage, will prove an interesting supplement to the particulars of Arctic adventure, already given: --
"On the 6th of July (about five weeks after leaving the Thames) we first fell in with the ice, but, the weather being very hazy, we stood off and on, till the 11th, when it cleared up a little, and the land appeared in sight. We now steered for the shore; but, the light failing us, we made the ship fast to a field of ice. We supposed that we were at this time not more than twenty-five or thirty miles distant from Hopedale. The next morning the fog returned, and was so thick, that we could not see any object two ships' length from us. Meanwhile the ice closed about us in such dense masses, that /128/ there was not water enough to dip a bucket into on either side of the ship. We remained in this state till the 13th, about noon; when the fog partially clearing away again, we beheld, to our no small alarm, an immense iceberg aground right in our way, our course being at this time in a direction to the S.S.E. It was not till about 3 P.M. that we could at all succeed in our attempts to move the vessel; and even then our utmost exertions, continued without interruption during the space of six hours, only brought her forward about three times her own length. Our object at this time was to get round the point of the ice-field to which we were moored, and thus place it between us and the iceberg, which was towering above us to the height of nearly twice the mainmast. Our position was indeed a fearful one; and I believe most on board were ready to give up all hope of saving either the ship or their own lives. The Lord, however, was better to us than our fears; He heard and answered the supplications we offered up to Him, and sent us deliverance in a way we least expected. May we never lose the remembrance of His great mercy! As soon as the field of ice to which we were attached came in contact with the berg, it veered round, and dragged us after it without the least injury, the distance between the ship and the latter being scarcely greater than a foot. Had we not succeeded in getting round the point in the way we did, we should probably have been crushed to pieces in an instant. We continued exposed to the same kind of perils till the 22nd instant, and, during the greater part of this time, the frost was so intense, that our ropes were almost immoveable. Even the small ropes were coated with ice to the thickness of four or five inches; so that we were obliged every morning to send up some of our people to the mast-head, to strike off the ice with sticks, that the ropes might pass through the blocks. On the 23rd we succeeded, by dint of great exertion, and under press of sail, in getting clear of the ice and reaching the open water, and on the 24th, arrived at Hopedale in safety."
It may here be observed, that, up to this date, embracing a period of more than sixty years, the ship had always proceeded to Labrador by way of Stromness, though, in returning home, she had generally taken her passage through the Channel. The reasons for the northward course having been so long preferred, were various. In the first place, as the latitude of the Orkneys very nearly corresponds with that of northern Labrador, the portion of the Atlantic to be traversed was somewhat smaller by this than by the southern passage, especially in the alternate years, when Okkak had to be first visited. Again, the danger from hostile cruisers was less imminent by taking this course, a convoy being ordinarily provided for the Hudson's Bay and Davis' Straits ships. This was a consideration of some importance in time of war, and led to its being generally preferred, also on the passage home, up to the year 1815; and lastly, it has so happened, that nearly all the successive commanders of the vessel have been natives of the Orkney Islands, and the greater number of the crew /129/ likewise. It was natural, therefore, that they should prefer a course which brought them, at least twice a year, into personal contact with such of their relatives and friends, as were still residing in those islands, not to mention that the annual visit of the ship tended to excite and keep alive a very warm interest in the Labrador Mission, in the minds of not a few of the Christian people of Stromness and the neighbouring islands, and to call forth their active and sympathizing benevolence.
On the establishment of a fourth Missionary settlement on the coast of Labrador, an alteration took place in the Society's practice in this particular. It being found necessary to send the ship to Hopedale first, as the most southern, and consequently, under ordinary circumstances, the most accessible of the four stations, the Channel passage was henceforward preferred in going out as well as in returning. The voyage of the HARMONY in 1832, was the first in which this course was taken, and it has been followed ever since.
According to the testimony of the captain, the weather, that year, was more severe, and the hardships experienced by himself and his crew greater, than he had ever before known, in the twenty- eight voyages he had made in the service of the Society.
The year following, the ship was exposed to imminent danger, from a violent storm which she encountered while lying off Hebron. For some hours, the captain, who with two boys happened to be the only persons on board, the remaining hands being variously occupied on shore, expected almost every moment, that the ship would part from her cable and be driven upon the rocks; but, by God's mercy, she rode out the gale, without sustaining any serious injury.
In 1836, the HARMONY fell in with the ice, as early as the 24th of June, after a speedy and prosperous voyage to within 200 miles of the coast of Labrador. "According to the statement of the captain, it was not merely the immense quantity of ice, that rendered the navigation difficult and dangerous, nor yet the number of icebergs that crowded the narrow channels, and of which he, on one occasion, counted no fewer than seventy; but more especially the character of the frozen masses, consisting chiefly of what seamen call bottom-ice, and the violent swells by which they were frequently agitated. The undulations hereby produced, exceeded, on one occasion, 100 feet in perpendicular height; a spectacle which, however sublime, could not be contemplated without the most lively sensations of alarm; for /130/ though the HARMONY was at the time beyond the reach of the most violent agitation, the striking of the ice against the ship's sides was sufficiently severe, to cause the utmost apprehensions for her safety. It was, in fact, only by the constant use of fenders of tow, or cable junk, let down beneath the surface of the water, and interposed between the vessel and the advancing masses, that the sailors were enabled, with the Divine help, to prevent her receiving serious, and perhaps, irreparable injury from their sharp and rugged edges. For eight days subsequent to this anxious period, the vessel remained completely entrenched in the ice, not a drop of water being visible on any side of her, as far as the eye could reach. At length, however, the Lord sent deliverance from these accumulated perils, and opened for her a safe, though toilsome passage, through the ice to the coast of Labrador. On entering Hopedale harbour, on the 4th of August, the captain learned, that it had become clear of ice only two days before; a circumstance, which led him to consider, as peculiarly providential, the many obstacles which had hitherto opposed his progress, having every reason to believe, that, had the ship been obliged to contend with similar ones, in the narrow and rocky channels between Hopedale and the islands, the destruction of the vessel would, humanly speaking, have been inevitable."
It was on returning from this voyage that Captain Taylor had the privilege is rescuing from a watery grave the nine survivors of the crew of the SUPERIOR, Captain Dunn, bound from Miramichi to Cardiff, which had been thrown on her beam ends, during a furious gale, on the 28th of September, and had become a total wreck. Eight of these poor mariners, including the captain, were brought in safety to England.
In 1837, the vessel encountered dangers of another kind. In the attempt, justified apparently by the state of the wind and weather, to enter the bay of Hopedale by a new channel, she struck three times on a sunken rock, which, however, she eventually cleared without sustaining any material damage. A similar accident befell her in 1840, on leaving the same harbour, though, in this instance, the channel was one with which the captain and mate thought themselves perfectly familiar. As she was going at the rate of six miles an hour, and the shocks were anything but slight, it was matter of thankful surprise to all on board, that no leak appeared to have been sprung, nor any serious injury done to the hull of the vessel.
The year 1841, the centenary of the Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel, was marked by a state of the weather on the coast of Labrador, not very dissimilar to that which has rendered the past year so memorable. Being prevented by the storms which prevailed, from visiting Hopedale first, the captain steered for Okkak, which he was enabled to reach on the 18th of August. Thence he proceeded successively to Hebron and Nain, where he delivered a portion of the /131/ stores destined for Hopedale, feeling very doubtful as to the practicability of reaching that settlement, owing to the lateness of the season and the continued prevalence of adverse winds. After a trying and difficult passage, the HARMONY reached Hopedale on the 20th of September, and, while lying in the harbour of that settlement, rode out a furious tempest, which at one time threatened to tear her from her moorings and drive her upon the rocks. Her return to Horselydown was on the 23rd of October.
The year 1845 was again a year of icebergs and ice-fields, by which the progress of the ship was greatly impeded, both on her approach to the coast and on her passage from one station to the other. That Captain Sutherland was compelled by the quantity of ice which he encountered on leaving Hopedale for Nain, and, by the prevailing dense fogs, to put back to the former settlement, he had afterwards reason to consider a very providential circumstance, as it would have been scarcely possible for the ship to have weathered the storm which shortly after ensued, in a channel encumbered with ice and abounding with sunken rocks. Before the HARMONY took her departure from Hebron, on the 8th of September, the weather was so severe, that the snow lay 18 inches deep on her decks, and the mountains encircling the bay, raised their white summits high above the surrounding vapours. The sea outside the bay, was studded with icebergs, some of them of the largest dimensions.
In 1849, the HARMONY was favoured to be the means of restoring to their families and friends the eight survivors of the crew of the barque GRAHAM, Captain Froud, who, after enduring extreme hardships and sufferings, had found their way to Okkak, from the entrance of Hudson's Straits, where the vessel had been wrecked, by coming into contact with a field of ice. The circumstances attending the rescue of the poor sufferers were such as to do great credit to the humane and generous feelings of the Christian Esquimaux, who were the instruments of effecting it, and to afford a striking testimony to the value of the instruction they had received, and the influence of the Gospel upon their hearts and lives.
Of occurrences of a more recent nature, it is scarcely necessary to speak particularly. It will probably be in the remembrance of the readers of this journal, that, in August, 1851, the HARMONY was, for the third time, preserved from the serious injury which might have been the result of her violent collision with a sunken rock, as she was entering the Bay of Hopedale; also, that the Divine protection was not less manifestly vouchsafed on her approach to Hebron in September of the following year. The occurrences of the last voyage, the failure of her attempt to reach any of the four stations excepting Hopedale, the disappointment and distress of the captain and crew, and the probable privations and endurances of the Missionaries at the settlements unvisited, will doubtless be fresh in the recollection of all who read these lines. While, therefore, they will join us in recording /132/ thankfully the marvellous acts of the Lord, and the goodness and protecting care displayed towards His servants, and the work in which they are engaged, during the long period of eighty-four years, they will not fail to make the ship, the officer who has charge of her, with all concerned in her navigation, and the Mission among the Esquimaux race, to whose service she is dedicated, the subject of their fervent intercession at the throne of grace. And this intercession will be specially offered up, in the prospect of the renewed attempt to communicate with our distant fellow-servants, and to replenish their exhausted stores, which is about to be made in the course of the ensuing month. On the success of this enterprise, the very existence of the Mission may be said, humanly speaking, to depend. Its importance, it is therefore scarcely possible to over- estimate, nor yet the value of the supplications for a blessing upon it, which, it is believed, many of the Lord's people are even now sending up to the throne of Divine grace.
With reference to one other subject of great interest and importance, the editor would avail himself of the language of the "Retrospect," which continues, he is thankful to say, to be as applicable to the present time as it was to the year of centenary celebration: -- "The Society cannot forbear a grateful acknowledgement of the goodness of God, in providing a succession of faithful, experienced, and able seamen to take the superior and subordinate charge of the vessels, in whose safety their Missionary Brethren, and many dear Christian friends, as well as themselves, are so deeply interested. In Captains Mugford, James Fraser, Thomas Fraser (no relation of his predecessor), William Taylor, and James Sutherland, and in the present mate John White, who has had the temporary command for three voyages, owing to the illness of Captain Sutherland, a degree of confidence has been placed, which could only have been inspired by the belief, that they considered themselves the servants of the cause rather than of the Society, -- that they acknowledged their entire and continual dependence on that Lord whom winds and waves obey, and were disposed at all times, and especially in seasons of difficulty and peril, to seek his counsel, help, and blessing."
While, then, in resuming his important charge, after an interval of three years, the worthy captain of the HARMONY will, it is hoped, be more than ever prepared to admit, in practice as well as theory, that it is "under God" that "he is master for this present voyage," and that it is "by the grace of God that he is bound to the coast of Labrador," the friends of the Mission on that coast, and of the Society to whom he is more immediately responsible, will not fail to support him by their fervent prayers, and to unite in the utterance of the heartfelt wish -- "And so God send the good ship to her desired port in safety." /133/ The following stanzas, by the skilful hand of the greatest master of English sacred song whom this generation has known, and whose peaceful translation to the heavenly rest is among the solemn occurrences of the last few days, will, it is hoped, be considered to form no inappropriate sequel to the foregoing narrative. They form part of a beautiful hymn, composed in 1841, for the centenary of the Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel, of which the writer was an esteemed and faithful member: --
Subject: Capt. Francis Mugford 1778 Newfoundland
Date: Wed, 22 Feb 2006 12:16:28 +0100 (MET)
Revolutionary Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States,
Volume 2, Franklin to Commanders of Vessels
Gentlemen: Whereas this religious society, commonly called the Moravian Brethren, have established a mission on the northern part of the Labrador coast for the good purposes of civilizing and converting to Christianity the barbarians who live there, and by that means putting an end to their custom of plundering and murdering the people of our fishing vessels and others passing in those seas; and whereas those missionaries and their families depend for subsistence in that unfertile country on the supplies annually sent them, and on the friendship of the natives, which is maintained by little presents of iron ware, all furnished by charitable subscriptions in England; the interruption of which supplies might hazard the loss of those pious missionaries and ruin an enterprise beneficial to humanity: I do therefore hereby certify that the sloop Good Intent, burden about 75 tons, Capt. Francis Mugford, carrying in the present voyage about 5,000 bricks for building chimneys, with provisions and necessaries for the missionaries and their assistants and some ironmongery and tinware for the Indians; the crew consisting of the captain, mate, three men, and a boy, and the passengers, one man and three women; is the vessel employed in the above service for the present year. And I request, if the said vessel should be met with by any of you, that you would not consider her as a merchantman, proper to be made a prize of, but rather concur benevolently in promoting so good a design by permitting her to pass freely, and affording her any assistance which the casualties may have rendered necessary, in which I am persuaded your conduct will be approved not only in your own breasts, but by the Congress, by your owners, and by all mankind. Wishing you all success and prosperity, I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your most obedient humble servant,
One of the Plenipotentiary Ministers of the United States at the Court of France.
Paris, June 22, 1778.
PROCLAMATION BY GOVERNOR RICHARD EDWARDS
AS TO PROTECTION OF THE MORAVIAN MISSIONS.
RECORD BOOK, ST. JOHN'S, NEWFOUNDLAND.
Volume 7, page 89 (reversed).
By His Excellency Richard Edwards, Esq., Governor
and Commander in Chief in and over the Island of
Newfoundland, &c. &c.
Whereas His Majesty Was pleased by an Order of Council of the 3rd May, 1769, and by another Order of the ninth day of March, 1769, to encourage the Unitas Fratrum, and their Society for the furtherance of the Gospel among the Heathens, to make settlements, on the Northern Coast of Labrador, for the purpose of civilizing and Instructing the Savages, Inhabiting the said Coast; And the said Unitas Fratrum, and their Society for the furtherance of the Gospel, have formed two such Mission Settlements on the said Coast, And Whereas some Members of the said Brethren, Society for the furtherance of the Gospel among the Heathen, have purchased and fitted out a Sloop called the Good Intent, of which Francis Mugford is Commander, principally with a view to bring the Missionaries and their assistants the necessary Provisions, for their subsistance in that inhospitable Climate. This is to Certify to all Persons whom it may concern, that the Establishments are under His Majesty's express direction, Authority and protection, and all Officers, Civil and Military, and all other His Majesty's faithful Subjects under my Government are hereby strictly charged and required not to give any interruption to the said Sloop the Good Intent, or to the said Mission, but they do afford the said Sloop and all the said Bretheren all Friendly assistance, for the success of their pious undertaking.
Given under my Hand at St. John's,
July 29th, 1779.
By Command of His Excellency,
The Papers of Benjamin Franklin
From James Hutton
ALS: American Philosophical Society
[May 15, 1778]
My dear friends Letter of May 10. came to my hands this 15 May. I did not leave with you, but sent to you, an account of the Vessel by the Post under some inclosure to some friend, which I hope you received in due time, in the mean while to avoid giving you trouble I send the Account I got this Evening.
The Sloop, Good Intent, Capt. Francis Mugford burthen about 70 or 75 Tuns the Cargo Consists of some Bricks for building Chimnies about 5000 I believe. Provisions and Necessaries for the poor Missionaries and their assistants, some Ironmongery and Tinware for the use of the Indians and Missionaries. The Crew consists of the Capt. and mate, three men and one boy. There are to be three women Passengers and one Man Passenger. The Vessel goes from London to Labradore. No man but a true man, none but our Vessel shall make use of your kind favour.
In my Soul and Conscience I believe that those of whom I had a good opinion meant and mean Peace and not Division, but as they could not be supported here in your main Preliminary Independence, they try to do as well as they can. If I did not believe they mean Peace I would by no means have any thing to say to it. But surely the Squadron from Toulon means us no good. I am sorry for it. I wish still for Peace. I wish it possible. I do not despair, but will hope to the End. My Health is as well as my Spirits will allow. I hope to recieve your kind favour under Cover to Mr. Anton Seyffert Zeist près d’Utrecht, if even it contains an additional favour from Mr. de Sartine. Our people about 20 will almost certainly perish if the Vessel be taken. She has orders to go strait to Labradore and has nothing at all to do at Newfoundland. It is not a trading Vessel but a Charitable one. It will bring in return to help pay the Expence of providing Necessaries and Provisions, what Train oil or Whale bone the Missionaries and their Assistants may earn or get by their Labour. You know our Society for the Furtherance of the Gospel among the Heathen consists of poor hearty people, who do as Zeal enables them hazard and risk the Expences, and blessed be God can never be rich as they neither seek it, nor can attain it. I am your most affectionate and most obliged
Simon Facey, Magistrate St E, also Col in Militia
Simon Facey having children in St E PR with wife Ruth abt 1764 (V1/24).
St Elizabeth 1782/4:
For St E
Col of Militia, St Elizabeth
Commissioners to take Affidavits out of Grand Court, Peter Sargeant and John Delaroach [Delaroche] (also Magistrate), Esquires
Coroner, Thomas Chambers, Esq.
Clerk of the Peace and Court, Edward Badnedge, Esq.
Clerk of the Vestry, Sampson Delaroach
Magistrates for Westmoreland, 1782 & 84:
James Robert Tomlinson
St Elizabeth 1782/4:
For St E
Col of Militia, St Elizabeth
Colonel John Campbell1
M, #198530, b. 1673, d. 29 January 1740
Last Edited=24 Apr 2009
Colonel John Campbell was born in 1673 at Torblaren, Glenaray, Argyllshire, Scotland.1 He was the son of Reverend Patrick Campbell and Jean McIver Campbell.1 He was baptised on 13 March 1673 at Kilmichael, Glassary, Argyllshire, Scotland.1 He married Elizabeth (?).2 He married Katherine Claiborne, daughter of Colonel unknown Clayborn, between 1700 and 1708 at Jamaica.1 He died on 29 January 1740 at St. Elizabeth, Jamaica.1
Colonel John Campbell also went by the nick-name of John 'Black River'.1 He emigrated to Jamaica arriving on circa 1700.1
Children of Colonel John Campbell and Katherine Claiborne
Colin Campbell+2 d. 26 Jan 1752
William Campbell2 d. 1747
Anne Campbell+1 b. 1700, d. 1783
(Aug 00: JAM will - Wright wills)
(11 Oct 00: editorial)
(19 Oct 00: C1881 Septimus)
(25 Oct 00: Andrew & Rebecca Wright family)
(10/11/00: create new file Wright01)
(11/11/00: added descendants of Andrew Wright M.)
10/3/2001: Rushbrooks & Dr AWM's story.
29/3/2001: Link to Nicol family.
14/6/2001: resaved HTML from Word
24/9/2001: notes re Wedderburn.
15/10/2001: added Parchment details.
2/11/2001: minor details, Move Parchments to CaptFred.
14/3/2002: extra details from Rushbrook. Edited.
16/9/02: FM 2 Marriage. & John Maitland DC
6/3/2003: Dr AWM's diary - minor additions ref Rushbrookes.
6/5/2003: Transfer AWM Diary, Slaves & Jam PR to Appendix.
19/1/2004: added putative Mugford Line
25/2/2004: Goodfellow Line
5/3/2004: Swaby notes.
28/4/2004: Carpenter line extended from IGI.
9/6/2005: Rushbrooke info
15/8/2005: misc census.
20/11/2005: John Maitland antecedents
13/2/2006: Summary and correct links.
11/4/2006: More editing on John Maitland, emails to endnote
22/9/06: Cooper & Andrew Wright Info.
26/11/2006: Septimus/Wasbrough issue & editing
4/6/2007: Edited & TOC
26/3/2008: added Jamaican records, edited, added Francis Mugford information.
10/9/2008: Small changes
13/3/2009: Edited layout
18/1/2010: small changes
15/2/2010: Jamaica visit 2010
23/7/2011: Revised Carpenter Line
25/2/2012: Jamaica visit 2012
1/03/2013: Slave Compensation & other updates.